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Body mass index definition world health organization: Why Use BMI?

Archived from the original on 18 December

Lucas Cox
Wednesday, August 8, 2018
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  • Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and nutritional status.

  • Results were broadly similar for men.

  • One cannot do serial sections of the body using CT to determine fat mass because of the excess radiation associated with this procedure.

  • The results appear in the Dec. Medical News Today.

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Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins. The Lancet, ; Weight, diet, and the risk of symptomatic gallstones in middle-aged women. This also is the case for diabetes.

  • However, it may have depended on the availability of a reliable food supply and the effort required in obtaining it. ISBN

  • With the metric system, the formula for BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

  • Am J Epidemiol.

  • Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

Beginning in the 17th century, 61 the general underlying theme in all the studies done on weight gain in populations is an increase in height as well as weight. Commentary: understanding the epidemiology of overweight and obesity—a real global public health concern. The scaling factor of 1. Health implications of obesity. This also is the case in artifacts from other cultures in the Middle East in that era. Norgan NG. This had the effect of redefining approximately 29 million Americans, previously healthyto overweight.

  • Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

  • While, a person with a very high BMI e.

  • Download as PDF Printable version.

  • Chart showing body mass index BMI for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Am J Epidemiol.

  • BMI is an inexpensive and easy screening method for weight category—underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity.

Based on data in the literature, there are several additional problems in determining associations between BMI and overall death rate or, more specifically, cardiovascular events or death rates. Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and nutritional status. As indicated above, this often depends on a general concept of societal norms or is due to peer pressure. January

BMI-for-age years. BMI vs. Nevertheless, there are more specific methods of determining body fat mass than is the BMI. The New York Times. J Chron Dis. It is of some interest that accumulation of fat in the lower body at puberty in females is unique to humans, is not present in any of the great apes, and most likely is estrogen mediated. Retrieved 29 July

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

In this paper, Keys argued that what he termed the BMI was " Connecticut Medicine. Boxy BMI is generally used as a means of correlation between groups related by general mass and can serve as a vague means of estimating adiposity. In an analysis of 40 studies involvingpeople, patients with coronary artery disease with normal BMIs were at higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease than people whose BMIs put them in the overweight range BMI 25— Inthe U.

In an analysis of 40 studies involvingpeople, patients with coronary artery disease with normal BMIs were at higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease than people whose BMIs put them in the overweight range BMI 25— BMI is also recommended for use in children and adolescents. JSTOR Bubnis D ed. The Lancet.

Back to Top. Definltion of this, the standards have varied over the past few decades. Diet plan for a 190 lb man to lose weight to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. The scaling factor of 1. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. The cut-off for observed risk varies based on populations and subpopulations in Europe, Asia and Africa. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases.

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In children, BMI is calculated as for adults and then compared with z-scores or percentiles. September This analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic whites aged 19 to

Retrieved 8 July Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Some orgnaization properties of weight-for-height indices used as measures of adiposity. Conversely, large framed or tall individuals may be quite healthy, with a fairly low body fat percentagebut be classified as overweight by BMI. US National Institutes of Health.

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Unfortunately, this distribution is not and has not been similar to those found in other surveys. Colours indicate BMI categories defined by the World Health Organization; underweightnormal weightoverweightmoderately obeseseverely obese and very severely obese. Indeed, he is considered to be the patriarch of statisticians. Archived from the original on 6 August Morant GM. Published online Apr 7.

  • Dietary goals - a skeptical view. Not only the societal but also the functional and indirectly the medical consequences of an excessive accumulation of fat also have been recognized for millennia.

  • Search the NIH Guide. Related conditions.

  • Arch Intern Med. The death rate from malignancies is decreasing, and there has been a remarkable improvement in longevity, which is continuing.

  • Bibcode : PLoSO.

  • Integrated Authority File Germany. To determine if BMI is a health risk, a healthcare provider performs further assessments.

The current WHO and NIH ranges of normal weights are proved to be associated with decreased risks of some diseases such as diabetes type II; however using the same range of BMI for incex and index definition world is considered healtth and makes the definition of underweight quite unsuitable for men. In a quantitative analysis of several studies, involving more thanmen and women, the lowest mortality rates were found for people with BMIs between 23 and 29; most of the 25—30 range considered 'overweight' was not associated with higher risk. Chart showing body mass index BMI for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Estimates of excess deaths associated with body mass index and other anthropometric variables. The cut-off points of the BMI-for-age reference for children aged 0—5 years for the diagnosis of overweight and obesity were set as the 97th and the 99th percentile, respectively.

They found that healthy women who had never smoked and who were overweight were 13 percent more likely to die during the study follow-up period than those with a BMI between Integrated Authority File Germany. BMC Anesthesiology. As compared with a BMI of If an athlete or other person with a lot of muscle has a BMI over 25, is that person still considered to be overweight? Clinical Chemistry.

Nutrition Today. Some common conditions related to overweight and obesity include: premature death, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, osteoarthritis, some cancers and diabetes. However, it may have depended on the availability of a reliable food supply and the effort required in obtaining it. Obese class II. Does abdominal obesity have a similar impact on cardiovascular disease and diabetes?

Retrieved July 29, The calculation is based on the following formulas:. Retrieved Adolphe Queteleta Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician, and sociologist, devised the basis of the BMI between and as he developed what he called "social physics". World Health Organization. Microsoft Academic.

US National Institutes of Health. The calculation is based on the following formulas:. United States Latvia Poland. Body fat throughout childhood in healthy Danish children: agreement of BMI, waist circumference, skinfolds with dual X-ray absorptiometry. To see the formula based on either kilograms and meters or pounds and inches, visit How is BMI calculated? Microsoft Academic.

This again indicates the importance of the location of body fat in addition to the total amount of fat accumulated. During and after puberty, boys accumulate a relatively large amount of lean mass bone and muscle but not fat mass. A particular problem with BMI as an index of obesity is that it does not differentiate between body lean mass and body fat mass; that is, a person can have a high BMI but still have a very low fat mass and vice versa.

  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Thus, it potentially compensates for a narrower build in tall compared with short people.

  • Adolphe Queteleta Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician, and sociologist, devised the basis of the BMI between and as he developed what he called "social physics".

  • Singh D.

  • Investigators also provided precise estimates of the increased risk of death among people who are overweight and obese. Body mass index BMI is a value derived from the mass weight and height of a person.

  • By How is BMI calculated?

The Health Board. BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's thickness or thinnessallowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients. The investigators noted the relationship between BMI and mortality may differ across racial and ethnic groups. A study looking at deaths from any cause found that a body mass index BMI between

Trying to lose weight, losing weight, and 9-year mortality in overweight U. In both sexes, these changes are reflected in an increased BMI. Overweight and the risk of sudden heart attack and sudden death NIH ; — Like any other measure it is not perfect because it is only dependant on height and weight and it does not take into consideration different levels of adiposity based on age, physical activity levels and sex.

Waist circumference is a good indicator of ogranization fatwhich poses more health risks than fat elsewhere. BMI is used differently for children. For example, the BMI of bodybuilder and eight-time Mr. The BMI is generally used as a means of correlation between groups related by general mass and can serve as a vague means of estimating adiposity. Main articles: Waist-to-height ratio and Waist-to-hip ratio.

For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www. Cancel Continue. Part of a series on.

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Assumptions about the distribution between muscle mass and fat mass are inexact. US National Institutes of Health. Lancet, pp. Retrieved 16 December

Retrieved 16 December Also, the precise risks for different levels of obesity were uncertain. A BMI that is less than the 5th percentile is considered underweight and above the 95th percentile is considered obese. A common use of the BMI is to assess how far an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. Adult BMI Calculator.

These recommended distinctions along the linear scale may vary from time to time and country to country, making global, longitudinal surveys problematic. The latter could be of great importance in hunter-gatherer societies and in defense of the tribe. In other words, BMI is better at determining a person is not obese than it is at determining a person is obese. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, — JAMA 20; 3 : —

The exponent in the denominator of the formula for BMI is arbitrary. April Obesity has continued to increase in adult women who are age 60 years and older. Bibcode : PLoSO. For adults over 20 years old, BMI falls into one of the following categories.

S2CID In general, a person who has a high BMI is likely to have body fatness and would be considered ogranization be overweight or obese, but this may not apply to athletes. Body fat throughout childhood in healthy Danish children: agreement of BMI, waist circumference, skinfolds with dual X-ray absorptiometry. As compared with a BMI of Cancel Continue. By It was developed by Adolphe Quetelet during the 19 th century.

Healrh School of Public Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Estimation of frame size was attempted using a number of measurements including shoulder width, elbow width, knee width, ankle width, and so on. Wikimedia Commons. All of the above are significant issues. The BMI ranges are based on the effect excessive body fat has on disease and death and are reasonably well related to adiposity. The Health Board.

Individuals with BMI Prime less than 0. New York: Nova Science. Dec ; 16 1 Moose and Doc.

The BMI ranges are based on the relationship between body weight and disease and death. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. All rights reserved. Also, a significant increase in risk of death was present only among those with a BMI of less than 21 or greater than

Understanding Adult Obesity. This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels. Table 1. The BMI depends upon weight and the square of height. Indeed, he is considered to be the patriarch of statisticians. It was developed for the convenience of the epidemiologists, and indeed it did provide a uniform codification of body weight for height reporting. Olympia Ronnie Coleman was

It is not clear where on the BMI scale the threshold for overweight and obese should be set. The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat adipose tissue although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly see discussion below and overweight. Preston SH. This also can be done using magnetic resonance imaging, but magnetic resonance imaging is very expensive. Over the past several decades, there has been an increase in BMI in the general population.

The BMI may be determined using a table [a] or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for different BMI categories, and which may use other units of measurement converted to metric units for the calculation. Moose and Doc. Adolphe Queteleta Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician, and sociologist, devised the basis of the BMI between and as he developed what he called "social physics". Site Menu Home. The BMI is generally used as a means of correlation between groups related by general mass and can serve as a vague means of estimating adiposity. Children with a BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile are considered to be overweight. Clinical Chemistry.

When the term BMI is used informally, the units are usually omitted. Retrieved 16 December July 8, Individuals with BMI Prime less than 0. The research team included investigators from the National Cancer Institute NCIpart of the National Institutes of Health, and collaborators from a dozen other major research institutions worldwide.

  • It also may be a space-filling fat site due to the relatively larger pelvis in postpubertal females. Mortality associated with body fat, fat-free mass and body mass index among year-old swedish men-a year follow-up.

  • For adults, the interpretation of BMI does not depend on sex or age. Assumptions about the distribution between muscle mass and fat mass are inexact.

  • Moreover, in the pediatric population, BMI allows comparison between children of the same sex and age.

  • Retrieved

  • Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue. The above 4 categories are similar to those suggested by John S.

World Health Organization. They found that healthy women who had never smoked and who were overweight were 13 percent more likely to die during the study follow-up period than those with a BMI between Retrieved 19 December Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. For example, the BMI of bodybuilder and eight-time Mr. Women categorized as obese or severely obese had a dramatically higher risk of death.

Liver Transplantation. The NHANES data going back to and up to also indicate that the relative mortality risk is lowest in men with a BMI of 25 to 30 in all age groups, that is, from the age of 25 years up to the age of 70 years. Int J Obes Lond. Ann Intern Med.

Liver Transplantation. For US adults, exponent estimates range from 1. JSTOR

Moderate risk of developing heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes mellitus. Why the degree of fatness has varied in different cultures is not clear. Tanner JM. An additional limitation of the BMI is it does not capture body fat location information.

  • New York: Nova Science. Body weight, weight change, and risk for hypertension in women.

  • Other methods to measure body fatness include skinfold thickness measurements with calipersunderwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DXAand isotope dilution 1,2,3. News Releases.

  • Retrieved 29 July We can then calculate that the weight increase per year has only been 0.

Table 1. Previous studies that examined the risks from being overweight were inconclusive, with some reporting only modestly increased risks definitio death and others showing a reduced risk. In children, BMI is calculated as for adults and then compared with z-scores or percentiles. Retrieved 7 April Read more about interpreting adult BMI. High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

Again of some interest, it is only humans who have a defined menopause. Antecedents of disease. Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men. Namespaces Article Talk.

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Niger J Health Sci. Medical News Today. PMID Archived from the original on 16 December Like any other measure it is not perfect because it is only dependant on height and weight and it does not take into consideration different levels of adiposity based on age, physical activity levels and sex.

Hidden categories: CS1 Japanese-language sources ja Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Wikipedia pending changes protected pages Use Oxford spelling from September Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from November All articles that may contain original research Articles that may contain original research from May Articles with unsourced statements from May Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with LNB identifiers Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers Wikipedia articles with MA identifiers. They found that healthy women who had never smoked and who were overweight were 13 percent more likely to die during the study follow-up period than those with a BMI between What are the health consequences of obesity for adults? BMI Prime is a dimensionless number independent of units. In general, a person who has a high BMI is likely to have body fatness and would be considered to be overweight or obese, but this may not apply to athletes.

  • Archived from the original on 18 December Obesity Review, ;

  • In this situation, BMI will increase without any corresponding increase in weight. Section Navigation.

  • In my opinion, the major focus on prevention and treatment should be on those unfortunate individuals who are grossly obese, mechanically compromised, and who are at very high risk for death.

  • Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue. Environment International.

  • Retrieved 5 February Connecticut Medicine.

  • European Journal of Epidemiology.

What's this? Accurate frame size calculators use several measurements wrist circumference, elbow width, neck circumference, and others to determine what category an individual falls into for a given height. More ». Handbook of Anthropometry. For example, this is the case in populations of Asian descent and older people. High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels. September Vital Health Stat A survey of heights and weights of adults in Great Britain, PMID The Lancet.

Vital Health Stat A pitched battle over life span. The Biology of Human Starvation. This is an important variable in assessing the metabolic as well as mortality consequences of excessive fat accumulation.

The duality of the BMI is that, while wlrld is easy to use as a general calculation, it is limited as to how accurate and pertinent the data obtained from it can be. Vol 1—3 New York, NY: — Flegal KM. Med Sci Sports Exerc. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues.

For adults 20 years old and older, BMI is interpreted using standard weight status categories. Health organization any other measure it is not perfect because it is only dependant on height and weight and it does not take into consideration different levels of adiposity based on age, physical activity levels and sex. PMID NCI leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH effort to dramatically reduce the burden of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. Investigators also provided precise estimates of the increased risk of death among people who are overweight and obese.

As indicated above, this often depends on a general concept of societal norms or is due to peer pressure. The influence of obesity on longevity. Obesity Prevention Source Menu.

Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. For adults, the body mass index definition world health organization of BMI does not depend on sex or age. One study found that BMI had a good general correlation with body fat percentage, and noted that obesity has overtaken smoking as the world's number one cause of death. Retrieved 29 July Between and the U. The investigators noted the relationship between BMI and mortality may differ across racial and ethnic groups. During childhood and adolescence the ratio between weight and height varies with sex and age, so the cut-off values that determine the nutritional status of those aged 0—19 years are gender- and age-specific.

Samaras TT, ed. In other words, BMI is better at determining orgwnization person is not obese than it is at determining a person is obese. According to mathematician Nick Trefethen"BMI divides the weight by too large a number for short people and too small a number for tall people. Liver Transplantation. April How is BMI used?

Archived from the original on 17 Hea,th Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. He noted that accumulation of fat in body mass index definition world health organization upper part of the body versus the lower part of the body was associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease, diabetes, and also gallstones and gout. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The Lancet, ; A study that followed 11, subjects for up to eight years concluded that BMI is not a good measure for the risk of heart attack, stroke or death. Archived from the original on

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US National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 21 August All of the previously mentioned methods use certain assumptions in the calculation of body fat mass, and all are subject to potential error.

Major adult BMI classifications are underweight under New York: Knickerbocker Press; — Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; Moreover, in the pediatric population, BMI allows comparison between children of the same sex and age.

Lean body mass in obesity. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. For this reason it is expected that it overestimates adiposity in some cases and underestimates it in others. Fogel RW.

Social aspects. The investigators maws similar patterns of risk even after accounting for differences in alcohol consumption, physical activity, and education level. The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat adipose tissue although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly see discussion below and overweight. Wikimedia Commons.

Footnotes The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose. Medical Organuzation Today. A child whose BMI is at the 95th percentile or higher for age is considered obese. A pitched battle over life span. Center for Disease Control. This general correlation is particularly useful for consensus data regarding obesity or various other conditions because it can be used to build a semi-accurate representation from which a solution can be stipulated, or the RDA for a group can be calculated. Morant GM.

Conversely, large framed or tall individuals may be quite healthy, with a fairly low body diet plan for a 190 lb man to lose weight percentagebut be classified as overweight by BMI. A organizarion problem with BMI as an index of obesity is that it does not differentiate between body lean mass and body fat mass; that is, a person can have a high BMI but still have a very low fat mass and vice versa. Survival during fasting may depend on fat as well as protein stores. By definition, one-half or more adults in the recent past and currently are overweight preobese or obese in Western, industrialized nations.

National Center for Health Statistics. Br J Prev Soc Med. The health risks associated with increasing BMI are continuous and the interpretation of BMI gradings in relation to risk may differ for different populations. Anthropometric reference data and prevalence of overweight, United States,

For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www. ISBN Causes of death were obtained from death certificates or medical records. Generally, the index is suitable for recognizing trends within sedentary or overweight individuals because there is a smaller margin of error. When the term BMI is used informally, the units are usually omitted. The cut-off points of the BMI-for-age reference for children aged 0—5 years for the diagnosis of overweight and obesity were set as the 97th and the 99th percentile, respectively.

  • BMI categories are generally regarded as a satisfactory tool for measuring whether sedentary individuals are underweightoverweightor obese with various exceptions, such as athletes, children, the elderly, and the infirm. Archived from the original on 21 August

  • Instead of comparison against fixed thresholds for underweight and overweight, the BMI is compared against the percentiles for children of the same sex and age. Archived from the original on 18 December

  • Singh D. Indeed, it may be misleading in this regard, particularly in men.

Body mass index - BMI. The correlation between the BMI and body fatness is fairly strong 1,2,3,7but even if two people have the same BMI, their level of body fatness may differ CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. Previous studies that examined the risks from being overweight were inconclusive, with some reporting only modestly increased risks of death and others showing a reduced risk. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Other efforts are underway to study the effect of BMI on mortality in other racial and ethnic groups.

Ann Intern Med. US National Institutes of Health. Unfortunately, this distribution is not and has not been similar to those body mass index definition world health organization in deifnition surveys. Excessive loss of skeletal muscle mass in older adults with type 2 diabetes. In Singapore, the BMI cut-off figures were revised in by the Health Promotion Board HPBmotivated by studies showing that many Asian populations, including Singaporeans, have a higher proportion of body fat and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellituscompared with general BMI recommendations in other countries.

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