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Hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy: Thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetic retinopathy

Novel interactions of adiponectin with the endocrine system and inflammatory parameters. But it differed from those of Chen et al.

Lucas Cox
Thursday, September 13, 2018
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  • Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the subjects for participating in this study and to thank all investigators and collaborators involved in this study. The current results were in agreement with those reported by Qi et al.

  • The repressive effect of T3 on the expression of MC4R helps in conserving energy in hyperthyroid states [ 86 ].

  • Consequently, there were adult subjects with normal thyroid function in all recruited and all the subjects were the Han nationality.

  • Metabolic syndrome prevelance in subclinic and overt hypothyroid patients and the relation among metabolic syndrome parameters. Ghrelin response to oral glucose load in hyperthyroidism, before and after treatment with antithyroid drugs.

  • Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: a case-control study. Cai Y.

Associated Data

The major characteristics of the eight studies are shown hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy Table 1. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Similarly, increased [ 6467 ], unchanged [ 66 ], and even decreased [ 65 ] values of leptin have been reported in hypothyroid patients. Influence of thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency on ghrelin.

Routine screening for Thyroid dysfunction is recommended in dlabetic patients with retinopathy. Received Sep 23; Accepted Jan Only hypertension and nephropathy were ruled out among the study population. The reasons that our findings were not consistent with that of the foregoing study [ 8 ] may be as follows: First, the prevalence of DR in the present study was The authors would like to thank the subjects for participating in this study and to thank all investigators and collaborators involved in this study. Dyslipidemia and diabetic retinopathy.

  • Association between thyroid hormone levels and diabetic kidney disease in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • Full size table.

  • In a recently published study [ 6 ] on Chinese populations, it was confirmed that the prevalence of T2DM was negatively correlated with FT3 and positively correlated with FT4, and this correlation was primarily determined by the level of FT3. Current Issue Archive.

  • Frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients: value of annual screening.

  • We screened 22 articles published from to Compared with the studies having a large sample size, studies with a small sample size may overestimate the true association.

Adiponectin and thyroid hormones share some biological properties including reduction in body fat by increasing thermogenesis and lipid oxidation [ 55 ]. The reason may be that Hcy could enhance the lipid peroxidation 42which leads to increased levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein OX-LDLaccelerating the progresses of vascular disease Teng, W. Low levels of adiponectin have been shown to confer a higher risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Higgins, J. Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback on hypothalamic type 4 melanocortin receptor expression. Therefore, the limited number of studies assessing the link between thyroid dysfunction, on one hand, and ghrelin and adipokines, on the other hand, have yielded conflicting results.

In a recently published study [ 6 ] on Chinese populations, it was confirmed that the prevalence of T2DM was negatively correlated with FT3 and positively correlated with FT4, and this correlation was primarily determined by the level of FT3. Diabetic Medicine. The relationship between thyroid function and T2DM has been a particular focus for concern, and this relationship has extended to the field of euthyroidism. FT3 levels within the normal range are negatively associated with DR in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Introduction The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is rising worldwide. In DM, the internal blood-retinal barrier is the earliest to be damaged, and changes in neuroretina result from the loss of its adaptation to metabolic disorders. We analyzed the unadjusted model and the adjusted model for the covariates.

Publication types

Diabetic nephropathy was assessed by the presence of albuminuria. Parvanova, A. Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism for type 2 diabetic retinopathy.

An association between retinopathy hypothyroidism and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. The prevalence ajd hypothyroidism in patients with and without diabetic retinopathy was analysed. An association between subclinical hypothyroidism and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. I am extremely grateful to all our Assistant Professors and PG Residents for their constant source of cheer and encouragement throughout the study. E-mail: eyedrck gmail. Biomed Res Int.

Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder world over and India is considered the world capital of this disease. Type 1 Diabetic retinopathy xnd have Hypothyroidism have reduced rate of gluconeogenesis with an increased incidence of hypoglycaemia. Finding References. Diabetic retinopathy DR is a highly specific neurovascular complication of both type 1 and type 2 DM, which is a significant cause of vision loss on a global scale. Corresponding Author: Dr.

Article Google Scholar Garber, J. Of mice and men and elephants: metabolic rate sets glomerular filtration rate. The effect of thyroid disease on proinsulin and C-peptide levels. Researches by Christ-Crain et al. After systematic review, only 8 of these were included in the meta-analysis.

MeSH terms

The association of CTLA4 polymorphism with type 1 diabetes is concentrated in patients complicated with autoimmune thyroid disease: a multicenter collaborative study in Japan. Data from the Whickham survey conducted in the late s in the north of England revealed a prevalence of 6. First of all, insulin resistance.

  • Article Tools Print this article.

  • Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Diabetologia 49, —

  • The study reported by Cai et al. Prospective cohort studies are also warranted to assess the relation between thyroid hormones and DR in T2DM patients.

  • Postgraduate Medical Journal.

  • Thus, 8 studies were included in this meta-analysis.

Routine screening for Thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy in all patients with retinopathy. The effects of thyroid hormones on pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy:. The characteristics of the participants between the DR group and the non-DR group were compared using Chi-square tests, or Mann—Whitney U test, unpaired Student's t -tests, as appropriate. Figure 1.

  • The relationship between normal thyroid hormone levels and DR in T2DM patients is unclear, yet multiple mechanisms are possibly related to this relationship.

  • Leptin, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, and Thyroid Hormones Thyroid hormones may influence carbohydrate mechanisms via its interaction with adipocytokines and gut hormones.

  • User Username Password Remember me.

  • Corresponding Author: Dr.

Thyroid function tests did not include free Diabetc. Zou J. We have previously deeply studied the relationship between normal thyroid function and DKD. In a recently published study [ 6 ] on Chinese populations, it was confirmed that the prevalence of T2DM was negatively correlated with FT3 and positively correlated with FT4, and this correlation was primarily determined by the level of FT3. Xiang G. Antioxid Redox Signal. The rate of primary hypothyroidism in diabetic patients is greater than in the non-diabetic population.

Update on iodine status worldwide. Ramis J. Data and blood samples will be collected from subjects and serum shall be extracted for thyroid profile. Thyreotropin levels in diabetic patients on metformin treatment.

Publication types

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Association between thyroid hormone levels and diabetic kidney disease in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Association of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients. These findings may provide the basis for additional large-scale cohort research.

Influence of thyroid status on serum immunoreactive leptin levels. Ghrelin is an orexigen secreted from the fundus of the stomach. Looker et al. Feely J, Isles TE. Thus, 8 studies were included in this meta-analysis.

ALSO READ: Hyperthyroidism And Hypothyroidism Causes Pleural Effusion

Thyroid hormones produce an increase in the hepatocyte plasma membrane hypotyroidism of GLUT2 which is the main glucose transporter in the liver, and consequently, the increased levels of GLUT-2 contribute to the increased hepatic glucose output and abnormal glucose metabolism [ 3435 ]. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: a case-control study. The relationship between thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus is characterized by a complex interdependent interaction. Thyroid hormones affect glucose metabolism via several mechanisms. Mira S. Zheng, Y. Kvetny, J.

The age of the patients studied varied from 37 years to 78 years. Arch Intern Med. Observation and Analysis The age of the patients studied varied from 37 years to 78 years. Differential effects of thyroid hormones on energy metabolism of rat slow- and fast-twitch muscles.

Citations(0)

The effect of the thyroid gland on intestinal absorption of hexoses. Hollowell, J. Serum concentrations of adipocytokines in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism before and after control of thyroid function.

In DM, the internal hypothhroidism barrier is the earliest to be damaged, and changes in neuroretina result from the loss of its adaptation to metabolic disorders. Medical hypotheses. In addition, thyroid dysfunction decreases glucose transport in myocytes and increases insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue [ 1819 ]. Subclinical and overt hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of retinopathy.

Close banner Close. The role of advanced oxidation protein products and total thiols in diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, CRP is recognized one of the primary and most sensitive acute phase protein in human nonspecific inflammation reaction Long-term observations of glucose tolerance in thyrotoxic patients.

Of patients, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism: the possible influence of metformin therapy. In addition, T3 was verified as affecting endothelial function by inducing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in the experimental models [ 2223 ]. Diabetes Care. According to the quartiles based on FT3 levels, the prevalence of DR exhibited a significantly declining tendency Lastly, all the subjects were from a single center.

We analyzed the unadjusted model and the adjusted model for the covariates. Diabetic Medicine. Another possible mechanism linking subclinical hypothyroidism 2 to vascular diseases is the finding that thyroid hormones inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and directly relax smooth muscles.

  • J Ocul Pharmacol Ther.

  • Modern Preventive Medicine 39, — Keywords: diabetes mellitus; diabetic retinopathy; thyroid disease.

  • Table 2 FT3 levels based on different stages of DR. Cappelli C.

  • Received Sep 23; Accepted Jan Conclusions: Patients with SCH had more severe form of diabetic retinopathy as compared to patients with euthyroidism.

Archives of Internal Medicine. Genetic analysis of families with autoimmune diabetes and thyroiditis: evidence for common and unique genes. Hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance [ 77 ] and hyperinsulinemia suppresses ghrelin levels [ 78 ]. The characteristics of these studies included in this meta-analysis on the association of DR and SCH are shown in Table 1. Chen Jihai et al.

Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Although we adjusted for the factor of metformin usage in the multiple logistic regression model, this factor may have some impact on the results. It is initiated nongenomically by integrin. The study followed the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines. Of patients,

Introduction

Received Sep 23; Accepted Jan Another possible mechanism linking subclinical experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism symptoms 2 to vascular diseases is the finding that thyroid hormones inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and directly relax smooth muscles. Some data in the database, which was concerning DKD and normal thyroid hormone [ 9 ], has been published. Support Center Support Center. Wilkinson C.

Endocr J 52, 89—94 Glucose-turnover values and futile-cycle activities obtained with 14C- and 3H-labelled glucose. Clin Endocrinol Oxf 34, 77—83 If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. They are studies by Yang Jinkui et al. A higher frequency of retinopathy and nephropathy was observed in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and more severe retinopathy was noted as well.

  • The DR group had a higher proportion of older and female participants and those using insulin, a higher prevalence of hypertension, and longer duration of diabetes than the non-DR group did.

  • Staub, J.

  • Patients with known history of thyroid disorder, patients on drugs known to affect thyroid function like lithium, amiodarone, oral contraceptive pills, etc.

  • The result shows that the figure was not asymmetrical, which demonstrated that there was no significant publication bias.

  • Association between thyroid hormone levels and diabetic kidney disease in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes.

Although we adjusted for the factor of metformin usage in the multiple logistic regression model, this factor may have some impact on the results. Font Size. Dimitriadis G. Subjects were evaluated for entry into the study if they are 12 years of age or older. Kowluru RA. Subjects were evaluated for anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and diabetic retinopathy.

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is rising worldwide. Patients with DM have a dibetic incidence of thyroid disease hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy to people without DM. Al-Geffari M. Iodine status and prevalence of thyroid disorders after introduction of mandatory universal salt iodization for 16 years in China: a cross-sectional study in 10 cities. In our study, the number of patients with PDR was only 4 and this number was too less to study an association between thyroid dysfunction and severity of retinopathy.

1. Introduction

Further studies should be aimed at clarifying the relationship between thyroid hormones and T2DM. Thyroid hormones can cause an increase of 6-phosphoglucose and glucose transporter 2 in liver cells and hepatic glucose output and thus promote hepatic gluconeogenesis. How to cite item.

Additional Information How to cite this article : Wu, J. In the past researches, the well-known risk factors for the development of DR include duration of diabetes, poor glycemic control, elevated blood pressure and dyslipidemia, of which the latter three are potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention 23 In this research, the pooled effect estimated from eight included papers demonstrated a 2. The results of a meta-analysis from the population-based studies around the world showed that the overall age-standardized prevalence of any DR was Association between diabetic ketoacidosis and thyrotoxicosis.

Maratou E. Abstract The relationship between normal thyroid function and type 2 retinopathy mellitus T2DM has been a particular focus for concern. Publication types Review. Iodine status and prevalence of thyroid disorders after introduction of mandatory universal salt iodization for 16 years in China: a cross-sectional study in 10 cities.

Remember me. Thyroid hormones can cause an increase of 6-phosphoglucose and glucose transporter 2 in liver cells and hepatic glucose output and thus promote hepatic gluconeogenesis. Various studies have shown that pharmacologic inhibition of this integrin blocks new vessels in multiple animal models.

This is as follows:. Arch Intern Med. A hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy study conducted in China demonstrated that the prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and positive thyroid antibodies was significantly higher in more than adequate iodine intake MTAII cities than inadequate iodine intake AII cities [ 30 ]. Nephropathy patients. In hypothyroidism, the renal clearance of insulin is decreased resulting in reduced insulin requirements. Diabetic Medicine. The molecular mechanism for proangiogenic activity of thyroid hormones is genomic and nongenomic.

ALSO READ: Decreased Reflexes Hypothyroidism In Children

Therefore, animal experiments should be performed to investigate the correlated mechanism between DR and SCH. However, in other studies, hypothyroid patients were diavetic to have comparable ghrelin levels to that of healthy subjects and those levels were not significantly altered after thyroid hormone replacement [ 778182 ]. Article Google Scholar Chen, J. The relationship between the glycemic control and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in diabetic patients. Increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations in canine hypothyroidism. Published online Jul The major characteristics of the eight studies are shown in Table 1.

  • Observation and Analysis The age of the patients studied varied from 37 years to 78 years.

  • A higher frequency of retinopathy and nephropathy was observed in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and more severe retinopathy was noted as well. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, —

  • Further studies should be aimed at clarifying the relationship between thyroid hormones and T2DM. We stratified 4 groups based on the stages of DR.

  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, — Adiponectin and thyroid hormones share some biological properties including reduction in body fat by increasing thermogenesis and lipid oxidation [ 55 ].

  • One-way analysis of variance was performed for the difference of FT3 levels among the 4 groups. In addition, thyroid dysfunction decreases glucose transport in myocytes and increases insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue [ 1819 ].

  • Ramis J.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, — Figure 3. In the past researches, the adn risk factors for the development of DR include duration of diabetes, poor hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy control, elevated blood pressure and dyslipidemia, of which the latter three are potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention 23 The role of advanced oxidation protein products and total thiols in diabetic retinopathy. Konno, N. AMP-activated protein kinase AMPKa cellular energy sensor, mediates the effects of various nutritional and hormonal signals in the hypothalamus.

Zhang, X. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Ors were used to measure association across the studies. Volanakis, J. Endocr J 58, — By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

Aim was to study the relationship between severity of diabetic retinopathy and SCH in patients of diabetic retinopathy with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine. Remember me.

The relationship between hypotthyroidism hormones diabetic retinopathy adiponectin remains to be clarified and limited studies addressing this issue have shown inconsistent results. Association between diabetic ketoacidosis and thyrotoxicosis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Plasma levels of adiponectin and soluble thrombomodulin in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine replacement therapy. Late diagnosis of DR results in the socio-economic burden of illness associated with diabetes 2.

So far, the association between normal thyroid hormone levels and DR with T2DM hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy has not been studied thoroughly. Figure 2. Shan Z. We stratified 4 groups based on the stages of DR. The following Guidelines for Detection of Thyroid Dysfunction were considered. All three of the above studies were conducted in the Asian population. Pregnant or lactating women were also excluded.

Article Tools Print this article. The different mechanisms by which thyroid dysfunction affect the Diabetes status are. It is initiated nongenomically by integrin. On the one hand, thyroid hormones regulate carbohydrate metabolism and pancreas functions, and on the other hand DM affects the function and work of the thyroid gland.

Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in mainland china: a meta-analysis. Frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients: value of annual screening. Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism for type 2 diabetic retinopathy. More recently, a role for thyroid hormones and TRH in the central regulatory pathways for thermogenesis has been identified.

Yamada, M. Researches by Christ-Crain et al. Yang, G. Human Immunology. The relationship between serum thyrotropin and components of metabolic syndrome. Frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients: value of annual screening.

The last, correlation between DR and hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy has been reported 46 and atherogenic disturbances in lipid metabolism have been observed in patients with SCH 47 Increased levels of ghrelin has been observed in hypothyroid patients, and these levels normalized with L-thyroxine treatment [ 7479 ]. Mira S. A cross-sectional and a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We acknowledge that the current findings are cross-sectional in nature and the availability of prospective data would further improve confidence in these associations. Rom J Interm Med 47, — More recently, Erdogan et al.

Cai Y. Factors like dyslipidaemia, which are associated with hypothyrroidism thyroid dysfunction and retinopathy were not ruled out. The two conditions have strong association 1 and have important clinical implications for treatment and insulin sensitivity. These findings may provide the basis for additional large-scale cohort research. Table 2. A cross-sectional study conducted in China demonstrated that the prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and positive thyroid antibodies was significantly higher in more than adequate iodine intake MTAII cities than inadequate iodine intake AII cities [ 30 ]. Association of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients.

Zheng, Y. Email address Sign up. Predictivity of thyroid autoantibodies for the development of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  • Data Collection Demographic and anthropometric parameters, including age, gender, diabetes duration, the status of drinking and smoking, hypertension history, and medical history, were collected from the medical records.

  • Furthermore, it seems that unidentified thyroid dysfunction could negatively impact diabetes and its complications. In DM, the internal blood-retinal barrier is the earliest to be damaged, and changes in neuroretina result from the loss of its adaptation to metabolic disorders.

  • Kratzsch J. I am also thankful to all paramedical staff of all departments.

  • The effects of hypothyroidism on platelet function and its rheological effect are said to play an important role in this regard.

  • Napoli R. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Retinopathy Ghrelin changes in thyroid dysfunction. They are studies by Yang Jinkui et al. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and severe diabetic retinopathy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. A recent study involving subjects from a Chinese population found a higher TSH level in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to that in the nonmetabolic syndrome group suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome [ 49 ]. Endocr J 54, 71—76 Novel interactions of adiponectin with the endocrine system and inflammatory parameters. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

No significant difference in family history of diabetes or body mass index was found between groups. Homocysteine induces vascular endothelial growth factor expression in differentiated THP-1macrophages. Kvetny, J. Effect of age, gender and HLA type.

Methods 2. Shan Z. Unfortunately, these studies [ 71415 ] only assessed the level of TSH, and FT3 was not measured. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Modern Preventive Medicine 39, — Metabolic syndrome prevelance in subclinic and overt hypothyroid patients and the relation among metabolic syndrome parameters. Clin Endocrinol Oxf 34, 77—83 Endocr J 52, 89—94 Kim, B. Department of Epidemiology.

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Inclusion Criteria Patients diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes on treatment. Unfortunately, these studies [ 7 hyypothyroidism, 1415 ] only assessed the level of TSH, and FT3 was not measured. Data Availability The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Nephropathy patients. The study reported by Cai et al.

Moura Neto A. Type 2 DM affects nearly every physiological process in the body, hence it has wide ranging systemic effects. Impact of hyperthyroidism and its correction on vascular reactivity in humans. Among them, 28 were males and 22 were females. Font Size.

I am extremely grateful to all our Assistant Professors and PG Residents for their constant source of cheer and encouragement throughout the study. Unfortunately, these studies [ 71415 ] only assessed the level of TSH, and FT3 was not measured. Differential effects of thyroid hormones on energy metabolism of rat slow- and fast-twitch muscles. Chinese Journal of Diabetes.

DR is common in diabetic patients but is asymptomatic until a significant visual impairment occurs. Saudi Medical Journal. Among these adipocytokines, adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted by the adipose tissue and has important insulin-sensitizing properties.

  • Chinese Journal of Diabetes.

  • A correlation between leptin and thyroid hormones has been demonstrated in several studies.

  • Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, —

  • Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

  • In hypothyroidism, the renal clearance of insulin is decreased resulting in reduced insulin requirements.

Type 2 DM diabetic retinopathy nearly every physiological process in the body, hence it has wide ranging systemic effects. Chinese Journal hypothyrlidism Diabetes. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. FT3 levels within the normal range are negatively associated with DR in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the prevalence of DR may be underestimated.

  • In addition, the difference in FT3 levels may be the vital reason for the discrepancy between the result of our study and the previous findings. Ojamaa K.

  • Ghrelin is an orexigen secreted from the fundus of the stomach. Article Google Scholar Mantel, J.

  • Falkowski B. Therefore, FT3 levels may be closely related to DR through endothelial function.

  • In addition, the difference in FT3 levels may be the vital reason for the discrepancy between the result of our study and the previous findings. The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and severity of PDR could not be studied due to the small size of this study population.

  • Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association.

  • Very recently, Ghawil et al.

The relationship between thyroid hormones and adiponectin remains to be clarified and limited studies addressing this issue have shown inconsistent results. Azar: bl. Data Extraction There were two researchers, Jingyang Wu and Lei Liu, independently reviewing all the potentially relevant papers through assessing the eligibility of each article and abstracting data with standardized data-abstraction forms. Several reports documented a higher than normal prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in the diabetic population.

Severity of diabetic retinopathy was compared with serum TSH level and it was seen that severity of diabetic retinopathy significantly increases with increase in serum TSH value. Send to a friend. Diabetic retinopathy DR is one of the most common microvascular complications of T2DM, leading to an increase in the socioeconomic burden [ 1 ]. The relationship between normal thyroid hormone levels and DR in T2DM patients is unclear, yet multiple mechanisms are possibly related to this relationship. Body mass index BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms kg divided by the square of height in meters m 2and waist-to-height ratio WHtR was calculated as waist divided by height in meters. Patients diagnosed with Type 2 DM on treatment for more than 5 years of diabetes mellitus and over 12 years of age were taken up for this study.

Distiller L. Associated Data Rdtinopathy Availability Statement The hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism. Patients in whom fundus cannot be examined. It was consistent with the study by Wu et al.

Journal of Clinical Investigation. However, in a study by Coiro et al. Abstract Thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus DM are the most common endocrinopathies in clinical practice that interact with each other. The American journal of physiology.

ALSO READ: Hypothyroidism Treatment Armour Vs Synthroid

Effect of iodine retinnopathy on thyroid diseases in China. Parvanova, A. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. Influence hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy residual C-peptide secretion on nocturnal serum TSH peak in well-controlled diabetic patients. A recent study involving subjects from a Chinese population found a higher TSH level in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to that in the nonmetabolic syndrome group suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome [ 49 ]. Article Google Scholar Higgins, J.

Retinopathy recent years, several investigators discussed the relationship between DR and SCH, but the results were contradictory. Blom, H. Frequency of Thyroid Disorders in the General Population and in Patients with Diabetes Thyroid disorders are widely common with variable prevalence among the different populations. Diabetes Care 33, — By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Fifth, the present study did not assess urinary iodine concentration UIC. A hypothesis of synergism: the interrelationship of T3 and insulin to disturbances in metabolic homeostasis. Dia Med.

Email this article Login required. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists diabwtic the Experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism symptoms Thyroid Association. The study followed the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines. The coexistence of DM with thyroid disease leads to endothelial damage, and the degree of its dysfunction has a significant impact on the course of macro- and microangiopathic complications in patients. Moreover, another study from China [ 8 ] found that high normal levels of FT3 and DKD were negatively correlated but failed to find the relationship between DR and FT3 in euthyroid patients.

Finding References. On the one hand, thyroid hormones regulate carbohydrate metabolism and diabteic functions, and on the other hand DM affects the function and work of the thyroid gland. Impact of hyperthyroidism and its correction on vascular reactivity in humans. Advanced eye disease: Persistent or recurrent vitreous haemorrhage, Traction retinal detachment, and Neovascular glaucoma.

The increased release of FFA could partially be explained by an enhanced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis induced by the excess thyroid hormones [ 36 ]. Sample size of study by Guo Dan et al. The prevalence of severe diabetic retinopathy severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy was significantly higher in the SCH group than the euthyroid group Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Abnormalities of coagulmion and fibrinolysis in insulin resistance. Thyroid hormones produce an increase in the hepatocyte plasma membrane retinolathy of GLUT2 which is the main glucose transporter in the liver, and consequently, the increased levels of GLUT-2 contribute to the increased hepatic glucose output and abnormal glucose metabolism [ 3435 ]. Looker et al. If moderate or high level heterogeneity existing, a random-effects meta-analysis was performed, unless using fixed-effects models. Clin Endocrinol Oxf 34, 77—83 To find out the sources of heterogeneity, we exclude each one study at a time.

Diabetic Medicine. Relationship between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical hypothyroidism: a meta-analysis. Therefore, we conducted duabetic study in the hypothyroidism and diabetic retinopathy region of China to examine the relationship between normal thyroid hormone levels and DR. Kowluru RA. Finding References. We stratified 4 groups based on the stages of DR. Introduction The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is rising worldwide.

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