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Pituitary thyroid axis hypothyroidism and depression – The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression

Campos-Barros, H.

Lucas Cox
Thursday, August 23, 2018
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  • However, the use of thyroid hormones as an adjunct therapy to antidepressants in the absence of subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism should be further investigated.

  • As its name suggests, this axis depends on the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the thyroid gland to regulate metabolism and respond to stress. Lithium increases platelet serine-9 phosphorylated GSK-3beta levels in drug-free bipolar disorder during depressive episodes.

  • Introduction The association between thyroid function and psychiatric disorders particularly mood disorders has long been recognized.

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Furthermore, variable findings regarding restoration of blood flow with treatment have been documented. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis HPT is a complex interplay between several factors: thyroid hormones, deiodinase enzymes, transporter proteins, and receptors. Older adults who seek hypothyroidism treatment can expect it to take longer to see results, as thyroid medication is often titrated slowly in this population to avoid putting any strain on the heart.

Like ahd, hypothyroidism can manifest as a general sluggishness. Surprisingly, T4 in high doses was well tolerated even in patients treated for up to 51 months. Visser, E. Both depression and hypothyroidism are common, particularly in older women, and there is a reasonable prevalence of overlap of two conditions. Reviewed by US physicians. It has been hypothesized that depression leads to inhibition of the D2 enzyme responsible for conversion of T4 into T3 due to the increase in cortisol levels [ 40 ]. Learn More.

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Expanding the horizons of depression: beyond the monoamine hypothesis. Baskin, R. Hage and Sami T. Meinhold, M. Article Google Scholar.

For example, your doctor may hypothyroidims lifestyle modifications and therapy to help support your mental health. Enhancement of imipramine antidepressant activity by thyroid hormone. Discussion Present updated meta-analysis of 21 studies reported nearly 2. Introduction The association between thyroid function and psychiatric disorders particularly mood disorders has long been recognized. Hage 1 and Sami T.

Medici et al. Changes in BDI scores with levothyroxine treatment. Jackson and L. Molecular basis of thyroid hormone-dependent brain development. Is subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly associated with depression or cognitive dysfunction?

Journal of Thyroid Research

However, the use of thyroid hormones hjpothyroidism an adjunct therapy to antidepressants in the absence of subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism should be further investigated. When people have depression unrelated to a thyroid condition, antidepressants can stabilize neurohormones and counter depressive feelings. Both SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants appear to amplify the activity of deiodinase enzyme type 2 D2 thereby leading to the enhanced conversion of T4 in active T3 in the brain. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. However, the use of levothyroxine among patients with SCH and coexistent depression needs to be individualized.

All depressikn reported mean TSH of the study cohort. More recently, a higher frequency of mild to moderate depression was observed in postpartum female subjects with positive antithyroid antibodies regardless of thyroid function [ 83 pituitary thyroid axis hypothyroidism and depression 85 ]. However, this was consistent with chance after adjustments were done for social class, alcohol, and smoking behaviors. Bearing in mind that relationship between two conditions is strong, it is important to stay informed, consult your doctor, and have a proactive approach to the subject. Keywords: Depression; Levothyroxine; Subclinical hypothyroidism; Thyroid stimulating hormone. Did you know that symptoms of depression and hypothyroidism are similar too? Furthermore, whether this link may have any clinical significance remains unclear since it was most often accompanied by normal serum TSH concentrations [ 4243 ].

  • Hypothyroidism and depression: a therapeutic challenge. Fung, S.

  • Abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid HPT axis have been reported in people with depression. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SCH and depression including 1 the prevalence of depression in SCH with a sub-analysis of the geriatric cohort2 thyroid stimulating hormone TSH level among patients with depression and 3 the effect of levothyroxine therapy among patients with SCH and coexistent depression.

  • View at: Google Scholar A. Drexhage, W.

  • Bauer, A.

  • We found an insignificant difference for the composite endpoint: standard mean difference SMD of 0. Horm Metab Res.

Kaprinis, and P. Wilson, A. McCue, Thyroie. Clearly, further research is needed to ascertain whether thyroid hormone supplementation may effectively accelerate and potentiate therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs. Of course there are some limitations due to small sample size, convenience recruitment and also the population of the study was not large enough to provide the statistical power to analyze the effects of sex or age and there is the need for broad based studies. Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment.

You can also pituitary thyroid axis hypothyroidism and depression for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. In a pooled analysis of 12, individuals, those with SCH anv higher risk of depression than euthyroid controls relative risk 2. The impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the thyroid function among patients with major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on TSH cut-off point for depression. View at: Google Scholar R.

Background

In addition, it has been shown that elevated serum T4 levels fall after successful treatment of depression. The mechanisms underlying the interaction between thyroid function and depression remain to be clarified and a causal relationship between the two cannot be established yet. Close Figure Viewer.

Cite this article Talaei, A. However, our study has a few limitations. Lester et al. However, in healthy subjects, supraphysiological T4 doses were less well tolerated due to higher increments in thyroid hormones after supplementation [ 73 ]. Suzuki and T.

In a seminal series of nine individuals with refractory depression, on top of antidepressant and levothyroxine therapy, additional hypothyroidsim of liothyronine was associated with marked improvement in the symptoms of depression in seven of them [ 57 ]. A TSH level within the laboratory reference range is not necessarily normal for every individual. Protein levels of beta-catenin and activation state of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in major depression. Simple lifestyle tweaks can help you feel better and improve your mood.

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View at: Google Scholar C. Their mean age did not differ from the euthyroid controls Download references.

  • If the data were not provided numerically, it would be read off graphs.

  • Poirier, H.

  • Also, PLR of 8. Association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms in the Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

  • Thyroid and adrenal axis in major depression: a controlled study in outpatients.

A blood test that measures thyroid function is necessary to confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Depression is not just a persistent feeling of sadness; it is a serious health condition indicated by symptoms affecting both mental and physical health and wellbeing. World population prospects: the revision. Well-being and depression in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity - a general population study.

Portella RB, et al. Loosen and A. Download other formats More. Understanding depression link between both disorders will guide clinicians to appropriately interpret thyroid function tests in depression, better understand the pathophysiology of both diseases, and try to identify the subjects who will benefit the most from thyroid supplementation. We also evaluated the mean depression scores among individuals with SCH, compared with their euthyroid counterparts based on the depression scales used. The sample sizes ranged from 22 to

Background

Study characteristics were summarized. Introduction The association between thyroid function and psychiatric disorders particularly mood disorders has long been recognized. The NOS scale was developed to assess the quality of non-randomized case-control studies for interpretation of meta-analysis results. More well-designed population-based prospective studies or randomized controlled trials are needed to gain more insights of the pathogenesis and natural history of depression in SCH, as well as the efficacy and safety of levothyroxine therapy to improve mood disorders among these high-risk individuals of varying age groups.

Pituitary thyroid axis hypothyroidism and depression to the National Institute of Mental Health, about Further studies are therefore hypohtyroidism to better elucidate this complex interaction between the HPT axis and the neurotransmitter system. Serotonin exerts a repressive effect on thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH excretion, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop that permits the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis if serotonin values in the brain are relatively low. Mayo, K. Subsequently, we collected the full versions of the qualified reports. The maximum score is

Publication types Meta-Analysis Systematic Review. Rao, S. When it comes to T4, results are still contradictory due to a diversity of factors such as differences in phenotypes of depressive patients, severity and duration of disease, and many others [x]. Thyroid function in different psychiatric disorders.

Joffe, and C. Korean J Intern Med. In addition, using the SMD as the endpoints, no significant effect was observed Supplementary Figure 4. Bschor et al. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Figure 1 K, pdf. Further studies using multiple age-associated TSH reference ranges can provide a better evaluation of the risk of depression in SCH patients. Read more.

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Half of the studies additionally supported the notion of subtle thyroid dysfunction in that thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH responses to the administration deression thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH were blunted and an inverse relationship was observed between self-reported anxiety levels and TSH. Furthermore, variable findings regarding restoration of blood flow with treatment have been documented. Of course there are some limitations due to small sample size, convenience recruitment and also the population of the study was not large enough to provide the statistical power to analyze the effects of sex or age and there is the need for broad based studies. Yet, antidepressants can disrupt other systems in the body, including thyroid function. Try yoga, deep breathingmassage, or a warm bath.

Lamberg, and W. PubMed Google Scholar. McCue, I. Notably, articles involving participants varying in age may affect mutual comparability. Pedersen, J. Also, the chance to have TSH level below 4 in severely depressed people in comparison to subjects without depression is just 0.

However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between thyroid function and depression remain to be further clarified. Neurotransmitters are related to hormones, and they are often called neuro-hormones, because of their similar properties. Hypothyroieism conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SCH and depression including 1 the prevalence of depression in SCH with a sub-analysis of the geriatric cohort2 thyroid stimulating hormone TSH level among patients with depression and 3 the effect of levothyroxine therapy among patients with SCH and coexistent depression. In a pooled analysis of 12, individuals, those with SCH had higher risk of depression than euthyroid controls relative risk 2. Larsen, J.

The role of thyroid hormones in depression. Campos-Barros, H. Front Endocrinol. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism SCH and depression. Overt hypothyroidism is a cause of major mood disorder, including melancholia, and may result in deteriorating dementia 1.

Figure 1 shows the flow of studies selection. In addition, the role of genetic variations in deiodinase enzymes in the response pituitary thyroid axis hypothyroidism and depression antidepressive therapy merits further investigation. In this theory, depression is a state of local hypothyroidism in the brain with normal peripheral thyroid hormone level as a result of deiodinase type II inhibition and impaired transport of T4 across the blood-brain barrier [ 10 ]. Abstract Background: Although depression is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, its relationship with subclinical hypothyroidism SCH is controversial.

Am J Psychiatry. Two reviewers Zhao and Chen separately evaluated all potential titles and abstracts. Tsuji, and T. You will also need regular blood tests when you titrate your antidepressant hylothyroidism to verify that your thyroid function is not affected. For part III, either randomized controlled trials or case-control studies that evaluated the effect of levothyroxine therapy in individuals with SCH and coexistent depression were included. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. It seems, there is no correlation between the existence and severity of psychiatric symptoms and the degree of thyroid hormone abnormalities.

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De Jong, E. Sxis are we talking about it in this article? In hypothyroid patients treated with levothyroxine, psychological symptoms, especially depression, may persist even when they achieve a euthyroid state [ 15 ]. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the Arak University of Medical Sciences because the study was funded by the university. Shan 1. Scientists concluded that depression and hypothyroidism have a strong relationship [viii].

Glenn, and P. Notes Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. High serum TSH levels are associated with depression in the elderly. Overview of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism in the Brain The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis HPT is a complex interplay between several factors: thyroid hormones, deiodinase enzymes, transporter proteins, and receptors. Bauer, P.

Both hypothyroid and depressed patients share a number of clinical features in common. In the central nervous system, alterations in hormones levels such as somatostatin and serotonin, can result in neuropsychiatric disturbances [ 42 ]. Pop, H.

  • Results In a pooled analysis of 12, individuals, those with SCH had higher risk of depression than euthyroid controls relative risk 2.

  • View at: Google Scholar S. The association between thyroid function and psychiatric disorders particularly mood disorders has long been recognized.

  • Beyond the monoamine hypothesis: mechanisms, molecules and methods.

  • Journal List Transl Psychiatry v. Scientists concluded that administration of SSRIs in hypothyroid patients was safe [xiv].

Salvati, T. Davies et al. Williams GR. Saravanan, B. Environmental influences on hypothalamic—pituitary—thyroid function and behavior in Antarctica.

Furthermore, Bauer et al. Our meta-analysis did not show improvement in the symptoms of depression with the use of levothyroxine therapy among individuals with coexistent SCH. Based on Beck depression test, scores less than 10 was considered healthy and more than 10 were considered depressed. Dakoda, and S. Changes in hypothalamic—pituitary—thyroid axis following successful treatment with low-frequency right prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression.

Thyroid hormones exert various effects on different processes such as neurogenesis, glial development, myelination, synaptogenesis, and dendritic cell proliferation. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on hypothyroid patients referred to endocrine clinics. They suggest that depression is a state of local hypothyroidism in brain with normal peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations as a result of brain type II deiodinase inhibition and impaired transport T4 across the blood brain barrier. Both excess and insufficient thyroid hormones can cause mood abnormalities including depression that is generally reversible with adequate thyroid treatment. Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Concentrations 6. Johns et al. This cross-sectional study was performed on hypothyroid patients, aged 19—68 years.

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The sample sizes ranged from 22 to Competing interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the Publication of this article. Your Medication delivered. Front Endocrinol.

Meta-analyses are known to be confounded by the comprehensiveness of search strategy, reporting quality of included studies, publication bias and exclusion of non-English articles. Google Scholar 6. Kastin, R. IVOR M.

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Regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis: relevance to depression. Although studies with the aim to identify the optimal TSH cut-off point are often population-based, comparison of the findings suggests that a TSH cut-off point with respect to depression is in accordance to them. The thyroid axis and depression. Harris, S. TSH cut-off values based on depression was determined by Roc Curve analysis. Hypothalamic thyroid hormone feedback in health and disease.

Thyroid hormone testing is well thuroid, but there are also lab tests that measure neurotransmitter levels, giving us valuable information that may lead to improved outcomes for the person with depression and a thyroid condition. Metrics details. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis HPT is a complex interplay between several factors: thyroid hormones, deiodinase enzymes, transporter proteins, and receptors. Gragerov, and J. Eker, C. This is the reason that some research workers use the "brain hypothyroidism" hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of depression.

Journal of Thyroid Research

Both tricyclic antidepressants [ 77 ] and SSRIs [ 78 ] appear to enhance the activity depreszion D2 resulting in an increased conversion of T4 into active T3 in the brain. De Jong, E. Wilson, A. Screening patients presenting with depression for thyroid dysfunction seems reasonable particularly those with refractory symptoms. The impact of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism on skeletal muscle.

Depression Son, and V. Six studies involved community-dwelling healthy individuals [ htyroid1720212329 ] while the remaining nine single-centre studies recruited out-patients who were investigated for suspected SCH [ 71314151619222430 ]. It seems, there is no correlation between the existence and severity of psychiatric symptoms and the degree of thyroid hormone abnormalities. J Clin Invest. The role of thyroid hormone deiodination in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary function. Thyroid disease.

View at: Google Scholar A. Kutluturk recommended that a population-specific TSH level hypotyroidism be detected [ 28 and depression. Meta-analyses are known to be confounded by the comprehensiveness of search strategy, reporting quality of included studies, publication bias and exclusion of non-English articles. Am J Psychiatry. For part III, we evaluated the effect of levothyroxine replacement therapy on depressive symptoms among individuals with SCH. Overt thyroid disease is rare in depression. The association of postpartum depression with postpartum thyroiditis or with positive thyroid antibodies is still not well defined.

What is hypothyroidism?

Surprisingly, T4 in high doses was well tolerated even in patients treated for up to 51 months. Jackson IM. These symptoms might be related to deiodinase II [ 17 ] or brain thyroid hormones transporter genes such as organic anion-transporting polypeptide I OATP-C1 polymorphisms [ 18 ].

The evidence for a narrower thyrotropin reference range is compelling. Biol Psychiatry. Little et al. Thyroid hormone therapy for older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol.

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Age-dependent symptomatology of depression in hospitalized patients and its implications for DSM Risk of bias was assessed via a standardized quality rating. Three studies showed significant reduction in depression scores, from Psychiatry Res. Lester et al. Bailey et al. Statistical analysis All data analyses were performed using Stats Direct version 2.

Sack, B. Download PDF. The role of thyroid hormone deiodination in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary function. Both depression and hypothyroidism are common, particularly in older women, and there is a reasonable prevalence of overlap of two conditions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

In this paper, we will present an overview of thyroid hormone metabolism in the brain, reexamine the different observations and clinical studies assessing the relationship between thyroid and depression, and shed light on the advances in neuroimaging approaches in this field. Sarandol, S. All studies reported mean TSH of the study cohort. Two studies found a higher prevalence of depression between elderly with SCH compared to controls [ 1430 ].

Associated Data

Meta-analyses are known to be confounded by the comprehensiveness of search strategy, reporting quality of included studies, publication bias and exclusion of non-English articles. Reference limits for serum thyrotropin in a Japanese population. Sometimes, treating the thyroid is just the ticket for also managing low mood. More recently, studies assessing the newer and more tolerable antidepressant agents, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs in combination with T3 have yielded confounding results. In total, the 14 studies involved participants, including participants diagnosed with SCH.

Obviously, the best TSH cut-off point should be pituitary thyroid axis hypothyroidism and depression on all thyroid clinical functions and symptoms including depression, which is one of the most significant symptoms. However, the use of levothyroxine among patients with SCH and coexistent depression needs to be individualized. Helfand M. Results The participants were hypothyroid patients Female; For example, people with either or both conditions can experience fatigue, malaise, weight gain, disinterest, and lack of energy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on hypothyroid patients referred to endocrine clinics.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Herbert et al. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism. Dakoda, and S. This class of antidepressants also binds with thyroperoxidase an enzyme that helps make T4 and T3reducing these hormones' availability for your organs.

Appelhof et al. Lamberg, and W. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SCH and depression including 1 the prevalence of depression in SCH with a sub-analysis of the geriatric cohort2 thyroid stimulating hormone TSH level among patients with depression and 3 the effect of levothyroxine therapy among patients with SCH and coexistent depression. TSH reference range in older adults: a Brazilian study. The extent to which the endogenous TRH system is involved in mood regulation and the underlying implicated mechanisms remain to be defined. A possible explanation would be a greater inactivation of T4 to rT3 in depressed patients compared to healthy subjects [ 74 ].

  • Wilson, L. Area under curve for TSH cut off based on depression.

  • BMC Psychiatry 17, Vedhara, R.

  • More well-designed population-based prospective studies or randomized controlled trials are needed to gain more insights of the pathogenesis and natural history of depression in SCH, as well as the efficacy and safety of levothyroxine therapy to improve mood disorders among these high-risk individuals of varying age groups.

  • Thyroid dysfunction in major psychiatric disorders in a hospital based sample.

  • Villar H.

Dayan, J. CSF somatostatin in affective illness. In total, articles were identified by the preliminary search of articles published by June axxis, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Risk of depression among geriatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Inan animal study illustrated that the density of hippocampal T3 was slightly lower in the SCH group than the sham group, which indicated a dysfunction in thyroid hormones in the brains of SCH rats even though their plasma thyroid hormones were in the normal range Cooper-Kazaz, W.

Gallacher, and Y. In addition, pituitary dysfunction is influenced by brain performance, which in turn is governed to a large extent by the balance of neurochemistry, known as neurotransmitters. Schlagenhauf et al. Sack, B. In fact, depression is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in hypothyroidism [ 20 ].

Maes, J. Jansen, and T. Article Google Scholar. Endocr J.

  • Google Scholar. The hypothalamus in culture, which is analogous to a deafferentated hypothalamus in vivoshows a paradoxic increase in TRH production after glucocorticoid stimulation.

  • Of course, more research is needed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid and estrogen. An acceleration of antidepressant effect by T3 has been initially shown more than 30 years ago in several reports [ 63 — 66 ].

  • Neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with untreated first episode patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

  • Glenn, and P. The maximum score is

Nevertheless, there are still unresolved disagreements about the standard upper limit of TSH [ 13 ]. Early studies noted a minor association between thyroid dysfunction and postnatal depression [ 82 ]. Diagnosed thyroid disorders are associated with depression and anxiety. Ann Thorac Surg.

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Acta Neurol. Hypothyfoidism is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. However, the use of levothyroxine among patients with SCH and coexistent depression needs to be individualized. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the Arak University of Medical Sciences because the study was funded by the university. SCH may impact up to The estimated SMD was 0.

Hypothyroidjsm, we performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between these two entities and the effect of levothyroxine therapy. Clinical investigators have long recognized the link between thyroid and depression. However, elderly patients may present in a state mimicking a depressive disorder with apathy, lethargy, and pseudodementia [ 9 ]. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Furthermore, whether this link may have any clinical significance remains unclear since it was most often accompanied by normal serum TSH concentrations [ 4243 ]. Hatterer, J.

Wilson, L. The reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine and without sonographic pathologies. Randy Hansbrough in Stuart at and visit www. Fang et al. Int J Cardiol.

Sometimes, treating the thyroid is just the ticket for also managing low mood. The estimated SMD was 0. This could also indicate a stronger relationship between two conditions which will be discussed below. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the Publication of this article. Brain Res Bull.

Schedule a Call. Pain-free testing from home. Overt thyroid disease is rare in depression. De Jong, E. Twenty studies were eligible. We also observed no relationship between SCH and depression in older patients. Why are we talking about it in this article?

Kastin, R. Written consent forms were obtained from all the subjects. Martin, S. Gold, A.

This favors the production of rT3 by D3 enzyme. On the other hand, meta-analyses of seven studies showed TSH to be negatively correlated with depression and total T4 ptiuitary be positively related to a depressed mood [ 35 ]. Two independent reviewers LHH and LLL screened the titles and abstracts obtained through the electronic search and analysed the full-text articles. Two studies found a higher prevalence of depression between elderly with SCH compared to controls [ 1430 ]. Thus the common occurrence of coexisting thyroid problems and mood disorders. Dayan CM, Panicker V. Joffe, and C.

View at: Google Scholar S. Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment. Thyroid Vol. Patients with thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and conversely depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. In addition, Fountoulakis et al.

It is postulated that a similar situation prevails with regards to the thyroid axis and that the increased T 4 in depression, hypothyoridism well as the blunted TSH response to exogenous TRH, reflects glucocorticoid activation of the TRH neuron leading to increased TRH secretion with resultant down regulation of the TRH receptor on the thyrotrope. Reference ranges of serum TSH, FT4 and thyroid autoantibodies in the Thai population: the national health examination survey. The 5-HT deficiency theory of depression. Correlation between thyroid function, testosterone levels, and depressive symptoms in females with spinal cord injury. Thyroid and adrenal axis in major depression: a controlled study in outpatients.

Indian J Med Res. Kaplan MM. In addition, Fountoulakis et al. Clin Biochem. Thyroid hormone therapy for older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH is constantly inhibited by serotonin. Korean J Intern Med.

A study with postmortem prefrontal cortex. What is hypothyroidism? All extracted data were reviewed by HSL.

  • A TSH level within the laboratory reference range is not necessarily normal for every individual.

  • The secretion of thyroid hormones is regulated by pituitary thyrotropin TSH which itself is stimulated by hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH and downregulated by serum thyroid hormones.

  • J Educ Psychol.

All other studies used different but validated scales to diagnose depression. Published online Oct Rev Bras Psiquiatr. Therefore, depressed patients with genetically determined lower T4 to T3 conversion could therefore derive more benefit from thyroid hormone augmentation therapy [ 70 ]. Protein levels of beta-catenin and activation state of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in major depression. The brain in iodine deficiency. Whybrow, A.

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Arch Gen Psychiatry. Afsaneh Talaei is a professor of Endocrinology. Kirkegaard and J. Indian J Med Res. Our meta-analysis did not show improvement in the symptoms of depression with the use of levothyroxine therapy among individuals with coexistent SCH.

The debilitating effect of SCH on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has gained increasing attention, suggesting that SCH is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ 1011 ]. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and rheumatic manifestations. Vandoolaeghe, M. Lo, T. Patients with thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and conversely depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. Can't sign in?

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