Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Birth weight and overweight obesity in adults a meta analysis – Large-for-gestational-age phenotypes and obesity risk in adulthood: a study of 195,936 women

However, the direction and strength of relation between birth weight and long-term overweight risk has not been tested globally so far in a comprehensive manner. Global Nutrition Targets Low birth weight policy brief.

Lucas Cox
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Advertisement
  • Academic Editor: Andrea Scaramuzza. We did not apply any limitation based on language of publication.

  • By calculating the I 2 according to Higgins et al [19]we assessed heterogeneity.

  • These could include early feeding practices e.

  • These preventative measures should include appropriate lifestyle advice to those planning to conceive as well as women who are already pregnant Birth weight and risk of neuroblastoma: a meta-analysis.

Correction

In final models, of 15, 2. Ludvigsson, J. Birth weight of offspring and insulin resistance in late adulthood: cross sectional survey. Fetal growth and coronary heart disease in south India. Lawlor, D.

  • This was regarded, unfortunately, in only five reports 4. Abdullah, F.

  • Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Rev Saude Publica.

  • In 4 studies 6. If the result was a negative value, it was considered to be 0.

  • Med J Aust 2: 12—

  • Arch Dis Child. Eur J Pediatr —

Furthermore, the implausible BMI values we noted in British Birth Cohort [53] brings into question the integrity of the dataset. Meya single gender studies of Cnattingius et al [47]female ; the GOOD Study [41]male ; and Svensson et al [51]male were excluded from pooled gender analyses. J Mat Fet Med — To explore the shape of the continuous relation between birth weight and later overweight risk, meta-regression technique was applied [20]. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. Environmental risk factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an umbrella review and critical assessment of current evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies.

ALSO READ: Massive Exogenous Obesity Icd

PLoS Med 7: — A systematic review of observational studies. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e. Pre-registration of an a priori protocol prevented post hoc modifications to analyses, decreasing the risk of bias. We also sought to determine if offspring age, gender and type of CS had an effect on outcomes.

Oldroyd J, Renzaho A, Audlts H Low and high birth weight as risk factors for obesity among 4 to 5-year-old Australian children: does gender matter? A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index BMI to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. However, the direction and strength of relation between birth weight and long-term overweight risk has not been tested globally so far in a comprehensive manner. Peer Review reports. Browse Subject Areas? Prenatal subjective social status and birth weight.

Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by the I 2 metric [ 33 ]. In 7 studies 6. The causal pathway linking BW to cardiovascular risk needs further elucidation to allow evidence-based public health interventions. We also sought to determine if offspring age, gender and type of CS had an effect on outcomes. One association with low birth weight increased risk for all-cause mortalitytwo dose-response associations with birth weight higher bone mineral concentration in hip and lower risk for mortality from cardiovascular diseases per 1 kg increase in birth weight and one association with small-for-gestational age infants with normal birth weight increased risk for childhood stunting presented convincing evidence. Birth weight and subsequent risk of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Background

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Article PubMed Google Scholar Eleven additional associations had highly suggestive evidence.

  • About this article. Elo, A.

  • With respect to our data of increased overweight risk in formerly macrosomic newborns, respective preventive measures may therefore not only improve the peripartal and perinatal outcome [][]but even the long-term overweight risk and resulting disease dispositions.

  • The aRR of obesity was 1.

  • Study Population The participants were from the National Child Development Study iin 18 ], an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of 17, children born in England, Wales, and Scotland during the week of March 9, However, a lower ponderal index weight in relation to length at birth has been linked to lower total body fat in childhood

Binkin, N. The associations between BW and cardiovascular disease were amongst the first to be observed in the medical literature [ 1 — 5 ] and our data suggests that the current evidence is highly suggestive. Analysis of confounder-adjusted data. Notably, there is evidence that even simple measures as reducing bottle size for those babies receiving formula may help prevent excessive weight gain, and consequently reduce the risk of obesity later in life 45 J Math Psychol. Dyck, H. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis includingpersons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

Cumulative obesity dose is an improved method for evaluating the impact of obesity degree and duration on diabetes risk and provides a better predictive ability for anaoysis diabetes risk than either the time-varying BMI or current BMI. Further, our excess significance estimates were based on the largest study of each meta-analysis and they might be conservative, because often these studies were not necessarily very large or might have had inherent biases themselves. Additional file 1: Table S1. Osteoporos Int. Over nearly the entire birth weight spectrum, birth weight was found to be linearly positively related to overweight risk.

  • View author publications. Greenland S, Longnecker MP Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis.

  • BMJ b

  • However, the long-term impact of being born LGA is not completely understood, with one study finding that LGA children were at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome at aged 6—11 only if their mothers had gestational diabetes mellitus

  • Lee et al. Wilcox A.

  • Methods Literature search and eligibility criteria We performed an umbrella review, which is a comprehensive and systematic collection and evaluation of multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyses performed on a specific research topic [ 17 ].

Elo, A. We systematically adulys PubMed from inception to December 24,to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies examining associations of BW with medical conditions, traits and biomarkers. Course of systematic literature review on birth weight and risk of overweight later in life, —January Since then, the importance of the early life and intrauterine environment in relation to later disease has been widely acknowledged and studied [ 16 — 10 ]. Global Nutrition Targets Low birth weight policy brief. The point estimate center of each black square and the statistical size proportional area of square are represented.

General estimates Of the 66 studies eligible for meta-analysis 59 studies Birth weight in relation to health and disease in aa life: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In the case of meta-analyses with continuous outcomes, the standardized mean difference was transformed to an odds ratio with an established formula [ 32 ]. No meta-analyses on large-for-gestational age infants were identified.

Introduction

Cumulative obesity dose is an improved method for evaluating the impact of obesity degree and duration on diabetes risk and provides a better predictive ability for determining diabetes risk than either the time-varying BMI or current BMI. Article PubMed Google Scholar. A pandemic of type 2 diabetes T2DM is affecting diverse populations worldwide [ 1 ] and is strongly linked to global increases in rates of overweight and obesity which have risen dramatically over the past several decades [ 2 ]. On the importance--and the unimportance--of birthweight. PubMed Google Scholar

Metrics details. Table 2 Summary of evidence grading for meta-analyses associating different overwright of birth weight and risk of future disease Full size table. Thirty-nine articles including 78 associations between birth weight and diverse outcomes met the eligibility criteria. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Can J Cardiol31 630 Jan Methods An umbrella review was performed to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies investigating the association between birth weight and subsequent health outcomes and traits.

Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e. Malnutrition and poverty. Am J Epidemiol. Overall, 78 associations have been examined, including a diverse range of outcomes: cardiovascular, cancer, metabolic, respiratory and mortality outcomes, and disease traits and biomarkers. World's Poult Sci J —

Publication types

Submit report Close. Int J Epidemiol. We further excluded the meta-analyses of individual participant data that did not report the study-specific estimates and pooled analyses that only summarized evidence across a non-systematically selected number of cohort studies or that did not present the study-specific effect estimates of component studies [ 22 — 27 ]. Obstet Gynecol — Sign up with Google.

Alternative measures, particularly reflecting abdominal obesity waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratiohave been shown to be more accurate risk predictors []. Tzschentke B, Plagemann A Imprinting and overweeight periods in early development. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. View Article Google Scholar. Preventive Medicine — Amin, F. Two independent researchers extracted the data LB, CKand in the case of discrepancies, the final decision was that of a third researcher IT.

Br J Prev Obezity Med — Centre for longitudinal studies, national child development study: Sweep 8, First deposit [computer file]. By contrast, all found an effect of high birth weight on later overweight risk, independently of early weight gain. Barker, who first observed these associations, hypothesized that fetal under-nutrition may lead to disproportionate fetal growth and program later coronary heart disease risk [ 6 ]. The following MeSH terms were used: "birth weight," "obesity," "overweight. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Int J Pediatr Obes 2: 40—

First, the Egger test and excess statistical significance test offer anapysis of bias, and not proof thereof, while the Egger test is difficult to interpret when the between-study heterogeneity is large. Figure 3. Read Article. Int J Obes Lond. Risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of Diabetes Research

The combination of estimates from different experiments. There are strengths and limitations to our systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. Barker DJ, Osmond C.

Magliano, and P. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ Cindy Feng, Nathaniel D.

We did not apply any limitation based on language of publication. Furthermore, we keta not appraise the quality of the primary studies, because this was beyond the scope of this umbrella review. Birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes. Life-course weight characteristics and the risk of gestational diabetes. A wide range of health outcomes has been studied ranging from anthropometry and metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, various cancers, respiratory diseases and allergies, musculoskeletal traits, and perinatal outcomes.

Overweoght J Clin Nutr. Birth weight and blood cholesterol level: a study in adolescents and systematic review. Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals. Studies were selected if they reported birth characteristics and long-term offspring follow-up into adulthood. However, others have provided evidence that at least some of the association between the BW of individuals and their later risk of cardiovascular disease may be genetic and therefore not modifiable via interventions that target the intrauterine environment [ 45 ].

Published : 07 February Associations of size at birth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of lean and fat mass at 9 to 10 y of age. Do chubby infants become obese adults? Table 1 Quantitative synthesis, bias assessment and credibility assessment of 74 associations between different comparisons of birth weight and health outcomes or traits Full size table.

ALSO READ: Obese Child Photos Of Karen

This approach takes full advantage of the existing meta-analyses to perform a standardised mdta process for the assessment of the epidemiological credibility of the findings. We further applied standardized methodological criteria to evaluate the epidemiological credibility of the statistically significant associations. Methods An umbrella review was performed to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies investigating the association between birth weight and subsequent health outcomes and traits. None of these analyses observed a statistically significant difference in the summary effect between the studies adjusting for gestational age and the unadjusted studies. Int J Nurs Stud —

Of the 42 excluded studies, 35 Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Whincup, S. Offspring birth weight and parental mortality: prospective observational study and meta-analysis. Reprints and Permissions.

Publication types

Article PubMed Google Scholar Koupil I, Toivanen P Social and early-life determinants of overweight and obesity in year-old Swedish men. Hum Reprod Update — Birth weight and metabolic syndrome in adults: meta-analysis.

Across 28 meta-analyses, the median number of cases was IQR, —11, and the median number of datasets was 8 IQR, 6— Diabetes — Eur J Endocrinol — Any disagreement over eligibility of a study was referred to all authors. Prediction of adult height and risk of overweight in females born small-for-gestational-age. Titles and abstracts of identified studies were independently screened by two reviewers [KD and MJH].

Performed the experiments: KS SS. Effect of a behavioural intervention in obese pregnant women the UPBEAT study : a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. View Article Google Scholar. Glueck, J. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Huxley R, Neil A, Collins R Unravelling the fetal origins hypothesis: is there really an inverse association between birthweight and subsequent blood pressure? Lancet

Background

Our study maps the current status of evidence on 78 associations of BW with various meat outcomes, traits and biomarkers. They followed over 17, participants stratified into two baseline age groups 30—44 and 45—59 for a median of 9 years and found that the younger cohort experienced a greater risk for incident diabetes than the older group for a given increase in BMI-years. Six other meta-analyses differed in the summary effect significance compared to the most recent one Additional file 1 : Table S1. However, both associations presented evidence for small-study effects and the dose—response association additionally had hints for excess significance bias. Greenland S, Longnecker MP Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis.

Availability of data and materials The datasets analysed and generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Birth weight and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Controversially despite this evidence, and without considering possible long-term adverse outcomes, the highly influential UK NICE guidelines [75] were modified in to support offering CS to women who, after discussion with a mental health expert, feel that VD is an unacceptable option. Consent for publication Not applicable. Birth weight, climate at birth and the risk of obesity in adult life.

ALSO READ: Childhood Obesity Graphs 2011 Ram

Furthermore, the availability of more data, in addition to contacting the authors for further information, we were able to present the risk of overweight and obesity separately, as well as specific BMI differences. To make pooled adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios more comparable, we therefore additionally calculated in all studies which provided adjusted data an unadjusted odds ratio that considered the reference category as used self-chosen by the authors for the adjusted odds ratios in the respective studies bottom Tab. Birth weight as a risk factor for childhood leukemia: a meta-analysis of 18 epidemiologic studies. Preventive Medicine — JAMA 76—

Am J Anat — Life-course evidence of birth weight effects on bone mass: systematic review and meta-analysis. An independent reviewer confirmed all data entries. Are birth weight, early growth and motor development determinants of physical activity in children and youth?

The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. In adulthood, women born LGA by ponderal index were on average 1. These preventative measures should include appropriate lifestyle advice to those planning to conceive as well as women who are already pregnant This is particularly concerning considering the associations between obesity and many chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease 2and some cancers 3as well as an increased risk of mortality 4. From the initial population of , we studiedwomen who met inclusion criteria Fig.

Conversely, the proportions of women who were overweight or had obesity was similar among those born AGA or LGA by length alone Table 3. Heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be expected and appropriately quantified. Tequeanes, A. Lee et al.

The comparison group for all analyses were women who were born AGA for both weight and length. Additionally, we scrutinized the full-text of the eligible papers to examine whether their authors discussed the potential effect of gestational age in the association of BW with subsequent health outcomes. Hypertens Res. Body mass index, overweight, and obesity in Swedish women born post-term. Risk does not further decrease below a birth weight of 1, g.

Relationship between birth weight and risk of overweight. Birth weight and blood cholesterol level: a study in adolescents and systematic review. Size at birth and abdominal adiposity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors. Pediatr Int —

BMC Public Health 9: Ann Intern Med — Centre for longitudinal studies, national child development study: Sweep 8, First deposit [computer file]. Int J Pediatr Obes 2: 40— National Obesity Observatory International comparisons of obesity prevalence revised April

View Article Google Scholar 8. Respective subgroup analyses revealed, however, that the relation between birth weight and later overweight risk was even strengthened overweiht non-BMI related measures were applied. To the contrary, epidemiological, clinical as well as experimental observations have convincingly demonstrated long-term deleterious consequences in association with a decreased birth weight, especially concerning metabolic-syndrome-like disorders and diseases [10][11]. From all eligible studies, data were abstracted in duplicate, using a standardized form. Influence analysis showed that the pooled estimates were robust. Birth weight and childhood leukemia: a meta-analysis and review of the current evidence. Classification of the degree of obesity by body mass index or by deviation from ideal weight.

  • Ann Epidemiol.

  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [caesarean section].

  • AcholonuAna C.

  • Interestingly, Goetz et al.

Obesity — Figure 1. Br J Prev Soc Med — Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica. BMJ c King D The future challenge of obesity.

Sheng J. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Available: www. Br J Psychiatry.

Table 4 Anthropometric data among women born large-for-gestational-age LGA or not according to ponderal index at birth. Additionally, two studies report that being born long for gestational age alone does not increase the risk of obesity in adults 20 Wilcox A. For babies already born LGA by weight and thus with an increased risk of obesity later in lifethere are measures that may prevent the onset of obesity. In 3 studies 7.

Integration of evidence from multiple meta-analyses: a primer on umbrella adupts, treatment networks and multiple treatments meta-analyses. Methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale [18] [KD and SS]; studies are scored based on population selection, study comparability and outcome Figure S1. Sign up with Google. These percentages were very similar to those observed in the studies which could be included into meta-analysis see below. Across 28 meta-analyses, the median number of cases was IQR, —11, and the median number of datasets was 8 IQR, 6—

Pediatr Diabetes 9: — View Article Google Scholar 6. Mode of delivery and offspring Body Mass Index, overweight and obesity in adult life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. N Engl J Med 6—9. We thank all of the authors listed in table 1 who kindly supplied additional unpublished data for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis.

Plagemann A A matter of insulin: Developmental programming of body weight regulation. Acknowledgements Not applicable. Overall, the literature q identified articles, of which 39 articles, published between andwere deemed eligible Fig. Influence analysis showed that the pooled estimates were robust. There is weak evidence that birth weight constitutes an effective public health intervention marker.

Between-study heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression. There is weak evidence that birth weight constitutes an effective public health intervention marker. Available: www. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gov't Review Systematic Review. Analysis of confounder-adjusted data.

In 3 studies 7. Gov't Review Systematic Review. Although numerous mdta have been published examining the association between birth weight and subsequent health-related outcomes, the epidemiological credibility of these associations has not been thoroughly assessed. Additional file 2: Table S2. Aggregate data from relevant studies were extracted onto a pre-piloted data table.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Wang, Y. Women born LGA by length alone were not at increased risk of obesity. A proof of the conjecture that the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons procedure is conservative.

Coll Antropol — The observed increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with lower BW is likely to be a main contributor to the inverse association of BW with all-cause mortality; an association supported by convincing evidence in our assessment [ 42 ]. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. The expected number of studies with significant results is calculated in each meta-analysis by the sum of the statistical power estimates for each component study.

Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality are strongly related to overweight and obesity irrespective of age, sex, and overwdight [6] — [9]. Conversely, the proportions of women who were overweight or had obesity was similar among those born AGA or LGA by length alone Table 3. Obesity risk factors in boys. Moreover, the observed relations between birth weight and later outcome did generally not differ from those observed in studies which could be included in the meta-analysis. Is birth weight associated with childhood lymphoma? The macrosomic fetus: a challenge in current obstetrics.

Figure 2. No meta-analyses on large-for-gestational age infants were identified. Siervo, M. View Article Google Scholar 7. After visual inspection, we primarily decided to use a linear regression model. While there is evidence that being born large-for-gestational-age LGA is associated with an increased risk of obesity later in life, the data are conflicting. Since then, the importance of the early life and intrauterine environment in relation to later disease has been widely acknowledged and studied [ 16 — 10 ].

The text was blurry Page doesn't load Other:. Article PubMed Google Scholar 8. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. Furthermore, we did not appraise the quality of the primary studies, because this was beyond the scope of this umbrella review.

  • This investigation was carried out in accordance with approved national and international guidelines for medical research.

  • An umbrella review was performed to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies investigating the association between birth weight and subsequent health outcomes and traits. Already have an account?

  • Osgood, 2 and Roland F.

  • Foetal origins of depression?

  • Editor: Adrian V.

The unadjusted HR was 1. JohnsonNonyerem O. To be eligible for meta-analysis, a study had to overweigjt the following criteria, defined a priori : 1 It had to be an original report on the relation between birth weight and risk of overweight. DerSimonian R, Laird N. Allen, E. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Academic Editor: Andrea Scaramuzza.

No meta-analyses on large-for-gestational age infants were identified. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. Ethnicity overrweight social class did not remain in the final models after backward model selection. These preventative measures should include appropriate lifestyle advice to those planning to conceive as well as women who are already pregnant Clarifications on the application and interpretation of the test for excess significance and its extensions. Methods 2. It is therefore unique in its ability to include BMI values from childhood and adolescence in its analysis.

Finally, we identified the associations that had the strongest validity and were not suggestive of bias. Fetal growth and birtg heart disease in south India. Greenland S, Longnecker MP Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis. Derraik, Sarah E. One association with low birth weight increased risk for all-cause mortalitytwo dose-response associations with birth weight higher bone mineral concentration in hip and lower risk for mortality from cardiovascular diseases per 1 kg increase in birth weight and one association with small-for-gestational age infants with normal birth weight increased risk for childhood stunting presented convincing evidence.

In 7 studies 6. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, includingpersons aged 1 to 75 years. Despite common belief that the intrauterine environment as assessed by BW is associated with many diseases and disease traits in adult life [ 16 — 10 ], our comprehensive assessment shows that convincing evidence only exists between the associations of low BW and increased risk for all-cause mortality, per 1 kg increase in BW and higher bone mineral concentration in hip and lower risk for mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Figure 4.

The association between birth weight of participants and the hazard of developing diabetes was borderline significant for low birth weight but was not significant for high birth weight. For those without diabetes, the last BMI was the BMI calculated at age 50 for those who remained in the study at sweep 8 or the final BMI calculated for those who dropped out of the study before age For four associations, the power calculations and the excess statistical significance test were not performed, because the sample sizes of the component studies could not be retrieved neither from meta-analysis papers nor from the original reports. Of the 66 studies eligible for meta-analysis 59 studies

Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis. Gov't Review Systematic Review. Overall, we identified more than one published meta-analysis for 25 outcomes, i. The expected number of studies with significant results is calculated in each meta-analysis by the sum of the statistical power estimates for each component study. Thirty-five studies were identified through the search, and 15 studies with a combined population ofwere suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis.

Eur J Endocrinol — An exploratory test bbirth an excess of significant findings. Methods Using a predefined search strategy, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched for any article published before 31 st Marchalong with references of any studies deemed relevant. Plagemann A A matter of insulin: Developmental programming of body weight regulation.

  • Effect of metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes in obese pregnant women EMPOWaR : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chiavaroli, V.

  • Pediatr Int —

  • The link between low birth weight and T2DM is strengthened by adjusting for cumulative obesity dose. Eriksen, W.

The 39 eligible papers included 78 different meta-analyses Table 1 : 28 assessing low BW, four assessing small-for-gestational age infants, 18 assessing high BW, and 28 assessing a dose—response association between BW and subsequent health outcomes. Third, our study is the only one to examine the relationship between cumulative obesity dose and diabetes risk in a birth cohort with data covering the time from birth to 50 years of age. Ahlsson, F. The relation of weight, length and ponderal index at birth to body mass index and overweight among year old males in Sweden. Mehta, S. A wide range of health outcomes has been studied, ranging from anthropometry and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, various cancers, respiratory diseases and allergies, musculoskeletal traits and perinatal outcomes.

Heterogeneity could be due to biased results in some of the included studies, but it could also reflect genuine differences across studies [ 35 ]. In 4 studies 6. Data used in this study were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Table S3.

Eur J Epidemiol 57— The data set and meta-analysis provided here is by far the largest one analyzed to date analyssi this topic and the first to address the whole lifespan, provide confounder-adjusted estimates and incorporate global data i. We followed a standardized procedure that has already been applied in the appraisal of observational associations in other research fields [ 18 — 21 ].

Mathai, S. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Google Scholar Fetal growth and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium. Birth weight, early weight gain, and subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sign up with Google. Figure S8. Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. Despite the attention that BW has received in public health policy and epidemiological research, a comprehensive assessment of the proposed associations between BW and future disease is lacking. Lancet

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?