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Child maltreatment and brain consequences of obesity: Childhood psychosocial challenges and risk for obesity in U.S. men and women

Abstract Background Childhood trauma increases the risk for adult obesity through multiple complex pathways, and the neural substrates are yet to be determined.

Lucas Cox
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
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  • Due to the ease of assessing BMI compared to more direct measures of body fat percentage, it is unlikely to disappear soon.

  • Obesity Silver Spring, MD ; 15 : — Main and interaction effects of a polygenic risk score for obesity PRS and childhood maltreatment experiences as assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire CTQ were investigated.

  • However, differences in quality ratings were not associated with differences in effect sizes across studies. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Introduction

Effects of obesity on human sexual development. Geneva: World Health Organization The relationship between childhood parental loss and metabolic syndrome in obese subjects.

Cite this article Luo, Q. Battling a weight problem early in life can also lead children to develop a negative body image, consequencez may make them more prone to developing eating disorders or body dysmorphia. Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Finally, the results may be influenced by residual biases for example, measurement error, confounding by unmeasured genetic or prenatal factorswhich cannot be excluded in meta-analyses of observational studies. This demonstrated that the brain volume associations identified in this manner are replicable.

  • Hair Cortisol and Cortisone During the lab visit, a research assistant cut approximately hairs closely from the scalp at the back of the head. Poverty as an adverse childhood experience.

  • Discussion This meta-analysis addressed the possible developmental origins of heterogeneity in risk for obesity.

  • Proc Natl Acad Sci. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias.

Health-related outcomes of adverse childhood experiences in Texas, Significance levels were given by bootstraps. Unexamined childhood trauma can lead to obesity both in the short- and long-term. To test whether stronger abuse-brain association was correlated with stronger abuse-BMI association, we calculated the correlation between these two associations across multiple sites of data collection.

Received : 25 October Childhood maltreatment and BMI trajectory: the mediating role of depression. The fact that most Future research in longitudinal data should consider how early childhood psychosocial challenges e. Lancet —

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Violence from parents in childhood and obesity in adulthood: Using food in response to stress as a mediator of risk. It also allows the comparison with population norms and other studies. The hypothalamus was divided into 8 subdivisions along the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral lines. In the following analyses, we focused on the gray matter volumes of the abuse ROIs.

Mediation of the influence of childhood maltreatment on depression relapse by cortical structure: a 2-year longitudinal observational study. Kanen, Barbara J. Table 1 Description of selected studies Full size table. Sci Rep. Nat Neurosci ; 12 : —

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Hughes M, Tucker W. Multiple biological, psychological, and social mechanisms may operate together to link maltreatmen psychosocial challenges to adult obesity. This finding is consistent in men with prior findings that men with drug use disorders are less likely to become overweight or obese J Pediatr. We thank Rudi Westendorp for his contribution to the conception of the study.

Dev Psychobiol. Prevention of qnd maltreatment remains paramount and our findings highlight the serious long-term health effects of these experiences. By measuring cortisol and cortisone in hair we get an estimate covering the past 3 months, while BMI -z was measured during the test day. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality.

  • Future studies will be needed to test whether universal or targeted preventive interventions that are effective in reducing the occurrence of child maltreatment 95 are also effective in reducing the incidence of obesity in the population. Advanced search.

  • Additional file 2: Table S8. Despite these potential limitations, the study results have important implications in several areas.

  • Following the allostatic load model, elevated cortisol levels would be expected in younger participants who had experienced maltreatment and blunted cortisol levels in adult participants who had experienced maltreatment.

Obes Rev — In addition to the long-term mental health consequences of maltreatment, there is increasing evidence that child maltreatment may affect physical health. He has been child maltreatment and brain consequences of obesity in clinical trials conducted by Shire and Vifor Pharma; the present work is unrelated to these relationships. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. Hair cortisol and cortisone levels represent the cumulative secretion of glucocorticoids over the three months prior to measuring BMI. Simon GE, et al.

We therefore aimed to investigate the influence of childhood maltreatment and genetic risk for obesity on structural and functional child maltreatment and brain consequences of obesity correlates associated with reward processing in MDD. The development and well-being assessment: description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. This could correspond, for example, to better adherence to dietary strategies of avoiding exposure to appealing yet high calorie food [ 57 ].

Introduction

With their brains unable obeskty produce a natural high, many adult victims of child abuse chase comfort and happiness in the form of food. Am J Psychiatry —6. This demonstrated that the brain volume associations identified in this manner are replicable. Maltreated individuals may eat more because of the effects of early life stress on areas of the developing brain linked to inhibition of feeding, or on hormones regulating appetite.

  • Much research on childhood risk factors for adult obesity has focused on energy balance factors, including eating and physical activity behaviors, and on reducing exposure to obesogenic environments e. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens activity to food and sexual images predict weight gain and sexual behavior.

  • Future clinical trials will be needed to test whether currently available interventions targeting childhood maltreatment and its psychological sequelae 95 could modify obesity risk.

  • Assendelft, and B. Although we identified evidence of publication bias, the trim-and-fill procedure suggested that this bias was unlikely to significantly affect the meta-analysis results.

  • Subjects Obesity Psychology Stress and resilience.

Guilford Press, malyreatment Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, 7 it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Dev Cogn Neurosci. Our results suggest that the association between childhood abuse and later BMI is not mediated by hair cortisol and cortisone. Neither hair cortisol nor hair cortisone had a direct effect on BMI. Association of childhood sexual abuse with obesity in a community sample of lesbians. Battling a weight problem early in life can also lead children to develop a negative body image, which may make them more prone to developing eating disorders or body dysmorphia.

  • Childhood obesity: update on predisposing factors and prevention strategies.

  • Biometrika ; 37 : —

  • Trends Jaltreatment Sci. Human resting-state functional connectivity has been reported between the PFC and the hypothalamus [ 75 ], and there is evidence for structural connectivity between these regions in the primate brain [ 9 ], but this has not yet been confirmed for the human brain due to the small volume of the hypothalamus and the complexity of its connectivity [ 7677 ].

  • Front Neuroinform.

In the extreme case of anorexia nervosa, the frontal pole is over-activated upon presentation of high-calorie stimuli compared to healthy controls [ 71 ]. We also demonstrated that a smaller FPC volume at baseline significantly contributed to the prediction of weight gain at follow-up. Nat Neurosci. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Sexual abuse, sexual orientation, and obesity in women. Child Abuse Negl ; 28 : — Early-life stress and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in juvenile bonnet macaques. The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance. Associations were coupled between abuse-BMI and abuse-brain.

Main - Topical

Table S3. For a better understanding of HPA axis functioning and corticosteroids in the body 57we investigated the concentration of connsequences the active cortisol and the inactive cortisone in hair. Overweight and obesity among maltreated young adolescents. Due to changes in the Dutch educational system, first and second generation participants rated education on a 7-point scale and third generation participants rated education on a point scale. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.

The role of trauma in the hormonal interplay of cortisol, testosterone, and oxytocin in adolescent aggression. Childhood trauma questionnaire: a retrospective self-report manual; Front Neuroinform. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Cite this article Luo, Q. For National Childhood Obesity WeekJuly 3 - 9, we explore how early traumatic experiences can lead to a lifelong struggle with obesity. Hum Brain Mapp. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. A sensitive period for environmental regulation of eating behavior and leptin sensitivity. Am J Psychiatry ; : 55—

Main-Audience

Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Lancet Psychiatry. Additional file 1. Sixth, the results may be influenced by characteristics of the samples examined. The comparison of percentages in matched samples.

  • Seventh, the results may be influenced by study quality.

  • Assuming causality, results suggest that prevention or effective treatment of seven cases of childhood maltreatment could avoid one case of obesity in adulthood.

  • Biological embedding of stress through inflammation processes in childhood.

  • Research shows that abused individuals are more likely to a develop binge eating disorder Negative affect prior to and following overeating-only, loss of control eating-only, and binge eating episodes in obese adults.

Genetic predisposition and history of childhood trauma malrreatment both independently been demonstrated to act as risk factors for obesity and to be associated with alterations in reward related brain structure and function. Moreno International Journal of Obesity The relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic eating behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates Ilhan AkdumanGuzin M. Endocr Rev ; 27 : 73— Hum Brain Mapp. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression.

Keyword: Search. An integrated approach to correction for off-resonance effects and subject movement in diffusion MR obesiy. We applied linear regression models to evaluate the relationships between childhood trauma and BMI measured at age 19 in male and female separately, controlling for data collecting site. Finally, we examined the potential moderation of meta-analysis results by key variables.

Background

We therefore harnessed a population-based longitudinal neuroimaging cohort in braib effort to identify a neurocognitive control NcC pathway relating to childhood trauma and the risk for obesity. Child Abuse Negl ; 36 : 84— Adults who have undergone some kind of trauma as children may struggle with the effects of residual stress from the event as well. Int J Eating Disord ; 21 : 23— Show results from All journals This journal.

Since most of these confounders, with the exception of season, hair color, and medication, were not related to either hair cortisol or cortisone see Maltreatmeht 1 and adding them increases the number of free parameters, we did not include them in the main analysis but we explored relevant confounders in a sensitivity analysis. Received : 25 October Conclusions The findings highlight that a malfunctioning, top-down cognitive or behavioral control system, independent of genetic predisposition, putatively contributes to excessive weight gain in a particularly vulnerable population, and may inform treatment approaches. A simple unified approach for estimating natural direct and indirect effects.

Additional file 1. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. Child Abuse Negl ; 17 : — Main and interaction effects of a polygenic risk score for obesity PRS and childhood maltreatment experiences as assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire CTQ were investigated.

  • Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.

  • Parent—child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: efficacy for reducing future abuse reports.

  • Biol Psychiatry ; 65 : —

  • Importantly, by designing the analyses to examine these associations in U. Transl Psychiatry 4:e

Google Scholar 3. Biol Psychiatry ; 65 : mltreatment Brain Behav. By mutually examining multiple psychosocial challenges in a sample that was not overweight as children, we were able to address some of these concerns and identify an independent effect not mediated through childhood mental health disorders or other social challenges. We carried out 44 permutations, omitting each study in turn see Supplementary Figure S2. Supplementary information.

BMC Med child maltreatment and brain consequences of obesity, The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Obesity is a clinically relevant and highly prevalent somatic comorbidity of major depression MDD. We examined the sensitivity of meta-analysis results to different definitions and measures of childhood maltreatment and obesity see Figure 3a. Finally, we examined the potential moderation of meta-analysis results by key variables. Although experimental studies in animal models have previously suggested that early life stress is associated with an increased risk of obesity, evidence from population studies has been inconsistent. Long-term medical consequences of incest, rape, and molestation.

Publication types

Additional analyses explored the effects of various possible sources of artifact or bias on the results. Lancet ; 2 : — Stat Med ; 19 : — How to correct susceptibility distortions in spin-echo echo-planar images: application to diffusion tensor imaging. No funding bodies had any role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Childhood sexual abuse, depression, and family dysfunction in adult obese patients: a case control study. Finally, the results may be influenced by residual biases for example, measurement error, confounding by unmeasured genetic or prenatal factorswhich cannot be excluded in meta-analyses of observational studies. Rose G. Greater striatopallidal adaptive coding during cue-reward learning and food reward habituation predict future weight gain. Am J Psychiatry ; : — Additional file 1.

Children with obesity have a three times higher risk of mortality in early adulthood compared with children in the general A general approach to causal mediation analysis. Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity. Neglect was not related to hair cortisol, hair cortisone, or BMI. The authors would like to thank Dr. Restricting temptations: neural mechanisms of precommitment. It has been suggested that cortisone is an alternative, parallel measure of cortisol

White-matter connectivity analysis was conducted to study the structural connectivity between the child maltreatment and brain consequences of obesity brain region and subdivisions of the hypothalamus in the HCP. Abstract Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. In contrast, this association was nonsignificant among studies adjusting for depression. The present study suggests that childhood maltreatment moderates the influence of genetic load for obesity on BMI as well as on altered brain structure and function in reward related brain circuits in MDD. Issue Date : May

Associated Data

Kenchaiah S, et al. Impulsivity as a moderator of the associations between child maltreatment types and body mass index. Indian 1. Further, only one of the studies included in the meta-analyses was nationally representative Dev Rev —

The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. However, observations from human studies showed conseauences results. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood. The findings come from the combined analysis of data fromindividuals from 41 studies worldwide, published this week in Molecular Psychiatry. Psychol Med ; 42 : — Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.

  • In line with previous research e. Is the childhood home food environment a confounder of the association between child maltreatment exposure and adult body mass index?

  • Childhood experiences may contribute setting life-long trajectories for obesity.

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  • Smoking and weight loss attempts in overweight and normal-weight adolescents.

  • South Med J ; 86 : — White-matter connectivity analysis was conducted to study the structural connectivity between the identified brain region and subdivisions of the hypothalamus in the HCP.

  • Psychol Rep ; : —

J Am Stat Assoc ; 95 : 89— Table S6. Gilbert R, et al. Our results add to the existing literature on risk factors for obesity in several ways. Psychoneuroendocrinology —8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Mol Psychiatry. This demonstrated that the brain volume associations identified in this manner are replicable. Pediatrics ; : e61—e Figure 3. Obesity itself can affect the brain [ 2021 ]: evidence of neural changes temporarily preceding excessive weight gain would further strengthen the case for an NcC pathway.

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. In both men and women, the prevalence of both obesity and extreme obesity increased in adulthood until age 35 then leveled excessive tv watching and obesity Fig. A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at However, most prior work has not accounted for other childhood challenges, or childhood overweight status, leaving unanswered the question of whether the childhood maltreatment association is due primarily to confounding by early body weight or other correlated psychosocial factors.

We initially tested the unique effects of cortisol and cortisone. R Development Core Team. Danese A, Tan M. The smaller the FPC volume, the stronger was the abuse-brain association across different data collection sites, and the increased abuse-brain association was in turn correlated with the stronger abuse-BMI association. Results Obesity and extreme obesity In this representative sample of U. Front Psychol.

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Our findings are consistent with a growing body of research suggesting that childhood experiences may have impacts across the child maltreatment and brain consequences of obesity course. What remains unclear is whether these challenges cumulatively contribute to obesity risk, or if certain individual challenges play an outsized role. Psychiatric disorders MDD, anxiety disorder, PTSD before age 18 were not independently associated with adult obesity in men nor women, but substance use disorders alcohol or drug were inversely associated with adult obesity. References 1. Early childhood stress exposure, reward pathways, and adult decision making.

To ensure specificity of our finding, we accounted for potential confounding factors: polygenetic risk for obesity [ 23 ], family socioeconomical status [ 24 ], consequencea due to illegal drug use [ 25 ], and elevated depressive symptoms [ 26 ]. Psychol Med ; 42 : — Neural changes after childhood trauma are additionally modulated by sex [ 18 ]: brain development is sex-dimorphic [ 19 ] and an NcC pathway may be sex-dimorphic as well. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions.

Consrquences slide. In addition to general school-based programs that involve promotion of physical activity and healthy dietary habits 68there may be a role for more intensive primary care based preventative interventions targeting normal weight children and adolescents with multiple known psychosocial risk factors for adult obesity. Sixth, the results may be influenced by characteristics of the samples examined. The following analyses were implemented in the R package lavaan 0. Natl Acad. All authors contributed to the result interpretation and discussion. To account for the sex-dimorphic in brain development, we conducted this BWAS for females and males separately.

Background

Chilld and sex were not included as covariates as BMI- z was already corrected for age and sex. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Dr. We therefore harnessed a population-based longitudinal neuroimaging cohort in an effort to identify a neurocognitive control NcC pathway relating to childhood trauma and the risk for obesity.

Print Email Share. Stressful psychosocial experiences in childhood might thus be conceptualized as potentially modifiable risk factors for obesity. The role of trauma in the hormonal interplay of cortisol, testosterone, and oxytocin in adolescent aggression. Gov't Review Systematic Review.

  • Ruan WJ, et al. DimitroffJens C.

  • KazmierskiMarie L. Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate For the IMAGEN study, the local research ethics committees approved this study and written consent was obtained from participants.

  • As the FPC is at the apex of a cognitive and motivational control hierarchy [ 56 ], the current findings provide a neuroanatomical basis for the hypothesis that cognitive deficits after CA contribute significantly to adult obesity i.

Obesity in young men after famine exposure obwsity utero and early infancy. It appears to be generally true that early prevention is more effective than later intervention because smaller changes in behavior are necessary to maintain than to lose weight Identifying the contributors to long-term weight gain will be essential for combating the obesity epidemic [ 45 ]. Endocr Rev ; 32 : — Combining one-sample sign test with false discovery rate, we assessed whether the median of the fiber number FN estimated for one brain area was greater than the randomly assigned FN according to the size of this area Additional file 1 : Method S3. Moreover, at least in child reports, any maltreatment that occurred in the first three to four years is unlikely to be remembered and hence, unlikely to be reported

Stress — Incubation period of coronary heart disease. Int J Obes. Modulation of brain reward circuitry by leptin. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis was performed only including season and medication use as potential confounders. Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. In the following analyses, we focused on the gray matter volumes of the abuse ROIs.

However, subgroup analyses showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with obesity, regardless of the measures and definitions used. Autoregressive and cross-lagged panel analysis for longitudinal data. Supplementary Information PDF kb. Jonathan W.

Effectiveness of primary care-relevant treatments for obesity in adults: a systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Cosnequences Force. The well-established Childhood Trauma Questionnaire CTQ [ 29464748 ] was used to assess the history of childhood trauma before the age of 19 in IMAGEN, including abuse emotional, physical, and sexual and neglect emotional and physical. Lastly, BMI is the most commonly used metabolic outcome and is intended to, indirectly, assess body fat percentage Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics that may be common causes of childhood challenges and obesity. Cumulative social risk and obesity in early childhood. We extracted adjusted effect sizes whenever possible, to measure the effects of maltreatment independent of the influence of potential intervening variables. Hum Brain Mapp.

Maltrratment inclusion criteria included 1 participants with childhood maltreatment assessment, 2 with BMI information at both time points, and 3 structural images at both time points. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat. The current study tests whether hair cortisol—a measure of chronic stress—and its metabolite cortisone mediate the relation between abuse and neglect on the one hand, and body mass index BMI on the other. These results should be evaluated in the context of several potential limitations.

Deterministic diffusion fiber tracking improved by quantitative anisotropy. Nat Neurosci ; 12 : — Patterns of symptomatology of adult women incest survivors.

Interpersonal violence in childhood as a risk factor for obesity: a systematic review of the obesiyt and proposed pathways. Controlling for age, sex, and SES, experiencing abuse was significantly related to hair cortisone. The NS. Contact us Submission enquiries: bmcmedicineeditorial biomedcentral. It is directly related to the environment in which a child grows up. Guilford Press,

BenzBernadette F. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Diffusion tensor tractography of cojsequences mammillothalamic tract in the human brain using a high spatial resolution DTI technique. However, the analysis showed that when current depression was taken into account, the link between childhood maltreatment and adult obesity was no longer significant, suggesting that depression might help explain why some maltreated individuals become obese.

Of note, results based on retrospective self-reports of maltreatment were similar to results based on prospectively collected and objectively assessed data, minimizing the chances that results were simply due to recall bias. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an increased risk of obesity in early adolescence: a population-based prospective cohort study.

Obesity —8. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Neafsey EJ: Chapter 7 Prefrontal cortical control of the autonomic nervous system: anatomical and physiological observations. While the first class of studies had larger effect sizes, it contained fewer studies: four compared to 24 in the second class. J Health Psychol ; 7 : —

Duval S, Tweedie R. Clin Nutr Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. Method Sample The sample of the current study was drawn from the Dutch 3G Parenting Study that investigates intergenerational transmission of parenting styles, stress and emotion regulation using a multi-generational design for details see 59 PowerPoint slide. Generally, higher levels of cortisol have been linked to higher BMI 48 but there are also examples of hypocortisolism and higher BMI Segal, L.

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You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Per item, the higher score of these two was included. It has been suggested that maltreatment experiences and increases in BMI could be connected through chronically elevated levels of cortisol 9 The relationship between BMI and percent body fat, measured by bioelectrical impedance, in a large adult sample is curvilinear and influenced by age and sex.

Interestingly, childhood trauma can actually have biological effects that contribute brian obesity. Am Psychol. Abstract Obesity is a clinically relevant and highly prevalent somatic comorbidity of major depression MDD. Google Scholar 20 Chinn S. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. Children with obesity have a three times higher risk of mortality in early adulthood compared with children in the general Competing interests Dr.

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Walter received a speaker honorarium from Servier The other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. Stress, eating and the reward system. Sexually abused children. Cite this article Luo, Q.

N Engl J Med —9. Much research on childhood risk factors for adult obesity has focused on energy balance factors, including eating and physical activity behaviors, and on reducing exposure to obesogenic environments e. Structural connectivity of the lateral and the medial hypothalamus. These findings of sex difference may suggest that sex hormones such as testosterone might be involved in the excessive weight gain in adolescent males after the exposure childhood trauma.

ScienceDaily, 21 May Broken or maladaptive? How can we learn about developmental processes from cross-sectional studies, or can we? During the preparation of this manuscript, Dr. After quality controls for neuroimaging data and behavioral assessments, participants females with a mean SD age of

Prevention of child maltreatment remains paramount and our findings highlight the serious and brain health effects of these experiences. View all the latest top news in the environmental sciences, or browse the topics below:. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. The hardship of obesity: a soft-wired hypothalamus. Substances Antidepressive Agents. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, 7 it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors.

Obesity interventions are effective in the short term, but subsequent weight regain often occurs: long-term weight management is a primary treatment challenge [ 3 ]. Full size image. Mol Psychiatry 19, —

Early trauma and adult obesity: is psychological dysfunction the mediating mechanism? Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Self-controlled children stay leaner in the transition to adolescence. Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Obes Rev ; 12 : e—e

Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Stress obesitg adiposity: excessive tv watching and obesity meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Childhood trauma questionnaire: a retrospective self-report manual; Mediation of the influence of childhood maltreatment on depression relapse by cortical structure: a 2-year longitudinal observational study. Childhood adversity and epigenetic modulation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor: preliminary findings in healthy adults. With regard to public health implications, our results support and expand previous findings suggesting that—in addition to the significant genetic and prenatal influences—body mass is significantly shaped by experiences in childhood.

Threshold-free cluster enhancement: addressing problems of smoothing, threshold dependence and localisation in cluster inference. As we know, adults eat in response to stress; the same could be true for children," Whitaker said. Future research should chkld the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect. Child abuse and other traumatic experiences, alcohol use disorders, and health problems in adolescence and young adulthood. We extracted adjusted effect sizes whenever possible, to measure the effects of maltreatment independent of the influence of potential intervening variables. The UK Biobank resource with deep phenotyping and genomic data. Predictability of baseline information to BMI change between baseline and follow-up.

We examined the possibility of undue influence of individual studies on the overall meta-analysis results. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure. Table S9.

We include poverty in this list of adverse experiences as has been recently excessive tv watching and obesity Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Extracted data was converted to odds ratios effect sizes 19 reflecting the probability of unfavorable outcomes, with odds ratios above 1 reflecting increased likelihood of obesity in individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment compared to non-maltreated individuals. A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Moreover, at least in child reports, any maltreatment that occurred in the first three to four years is unlikely to be remembered and hence, unlikely to be reported Greater striatopallidal adaptive coding during cue-reward learning and food reward habituation predict future weight gain.

Kanen, Barbara J. View author publications. Endocr Rev ; 27 : 73— Studies that have examined within-individual changes in body mass showed that childhood maltreatment may be associated not only with obesity occurrence but also with its persistence and exacerbation over time, 586071 similarly to what has been described for depression.

Then in the sensitivity analysis, consequennces tested the confounding effects of PRS BMIfamily socioeconomic status, stressful life events in the past year, birth weight, depressive symptoms, and illegal drug use Additional file 1 : Method S1. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. Theoretically, we expect that glucocorticoids would affect BMI but methodologically we cannot infer causality in our study. Background: Experiencing maltreatment during childhood exerts substantial stress on the child and increases the risk for overweight and obesity later in life.

  • The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women. Finally, to understand the directionality of the identified associations, we conducted a longitudinal analysis in the IMAGEN cohort to test whether neural correlates of childhood trauma at age 14 preceded excessive weight gain during a 5-year follow-up period.

  • A multidimensional assessment of stressful life events among adolescents: derivation and correlates.

  • Introduction Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Arthritis Care Res —6.

  • A multidimensional assessment of stressful life events among adolescents: derivation and correlates. We have identified volumetric reduction in FPC as a key neuroanatomical link between childhood abuse and adult obesity.

Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. At a growth-rate of approximately one centimeter per month, one centimeter of hair represents the cumulative cortisol secretion of the past month brain consequences Impulsivity as a moderator of the associations between child maltreatment types and body mass index. Obesity Silver Spring, MD ; 19 : — It has also been argued that unhealthy eating patterns as a result of maltreatment may be associated with decreases in prefrontal cortex volume and less inhibitory control The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. This finding is consistent in men with prior findings that men with drug use disorders are less likely to become overweight or obese

However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on maltreatmennt neglect, or adjusting for current depression. The effects of childhood maltreatment on brain structure, function obesity connectivity. The database we used was released in June White-matter connectivity analysis was conducted to study the structural connectivity between the identified brain region and subdivisions of the hypothalamus in the HCP. Effectiveness of primary care-relevant treatments for obesity in adults: a systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. However, subgroup analyses showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with obesity, regardless of the measures and definitions used.

Main-Audience

Overweight and obesity among maltreated young adolescents. Google Scholar. Hall KD, Kahan S. Childhood emotional neglect related to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and body mass index in adult women. Second, given the complex role of the frontopolar cortex, future neuroimaging experiments are required to examine effects on down-stream networks.

The hypothalamus is a center for eating behavior, while the prefrontal cortex is critical for cognitive control: Given their reciprocal connections, observed in animal models [ 789 ], early-life damage to this neurocognitive system may impair both motivation and capability for long-term weight management [ 10 ]. Aberrant brain activation during a response inhibition task in adolescent eating disorder subtypes. Health risk behaviors and medical sequelae of childhood sexual abuse. Gillman MW.

Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity. Of these, adolescents females had genetic information Cosnequences 1Additional file 1 : Method S1 [ 22 and brain consequences, 2930313233343536373839404142434445 ]. Figure 4. Retrieved August 1, from www. MD ; 15 : — Control of food intake could have unique features compared with controlling other behavior, as human choice strategies may have been shaped by evolution to take as much food as is encountered.

Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. Cereb Cortex. Science News. This meta-analysis addressed the possible developmental origins of heterogeneity in risk for obesity.

However, because of the variability in the strength of association between BMI and body composition across different ethnic groups, 73 these findings might have alternatively arisen because of the inadequacy of BMI to capture the effect of maltreatment on body composition in non-white ethnic groups. Consistent with previous reports [ 1483 ], the CA prevalence was as high as 1 in 4 young male participants in our sample, and the risk of being overweight or obese at age 19 was 2. To date, most studies have targeted the dorsolateral PFC, but therapeutic effects have been inconclusive [ 84 ]. Luo, Q. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world—a growing challenge.

Burger KS, Stice E. Childhood trauma has been associated with negative testosterone-cortisol coupling in adolescent females, but positive testosterone-cortisol coupling in adolescent males [ 81 ], since childhood trauma can alter the coupling between hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal [ 82 ]. In: Handbook of developmental research methods. Ganguly P, Brenhouse HC. Low testosterone levels have been implicated in metabolic dysfunction, especially associated with increased central adiposity and reduced lean mass in males, while weight loss has also been linked to increased testosterone levels [ 80 ].

Childhood experiences may contribute setting life-long trajectories for obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. In contrast, we did not observe a linear association between mean age of the sample and effect sizes. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature.

One study investigated posttraumatic stress disorder as a potential mechanism but only found a weak mediation effect Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med ; 33 : 28— Body index measurements in compared with White-matter connectivity analysis was conducted to study the structural connectivity between the identified brain region and subdivisions of the hypothalamus in the HCP. It should be noted that large differences in effect sizes across studies of children and adolescents might be at least partly explained by differences in pubertal for example, Tanner stages, 92 and most studies did not provide data to test this hypothesis. Neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, built environments, and childhood obesity.

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