Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Childhood obesity trends and potential causes of climate: The epidemiological burden of obesity in childhood: a worldwide epidemic requiring urgent action

Is the association between childhood socioeconomic circumstances and cause-specific mortality established?

Lucas Cox
Monday, January 20, 2020
Advertisement
  • Skip to main content. Obesity and Lipotoxicity.

  • Calle EE, Kaaks R. The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has increased around the world [ 1 ], and it has been estimated that 91 million children will have obesity in [ 2 ].

  • Efficacy of US paediatric obesity primary care guidelines: two randomized trials. Table 1 Descriptive statistics, imputed data Full size table.

  • Child Care Health Dev ; 39 — The lateral hypothalamus LH plays a fundamental role in regulating feeding and reward-related behaviors; however, the contributions of neuronal subpopulations in the LH are yet to be identified thoroughly.

Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes

Health Promot Int ; 26 —9. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 24 —8. How being overweight causes cancer? Stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity. Interventions for preventing obesity in children.

Include Synonyms Include Dead terms. This summary provides a public health overview of selected key issues related to the prevention of obesity and chronic diseases with a life-course perspective of nutrition and child growth. Further, overweight and obesity have been associated with depression [ 79 ], discrimination, and bullying [ 11 ]. AndersonM. However, both somatic and psychological factors may play a role in the increased risk of mortality observed in individuals with obesity. The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes.

Another effective chilhdood measure against childhood obesity is the awareness of parents on the meal and snack portion sizes. AMF literature search, study design, data analysis, data interpretation, writing. In North Africa inthe highest prevalence of obesity was seen in girls and boys in Libya and the lowest prevalence was in girls and boys in Algeria. Measures of stress vary from study to study 82but the findings are consistent. Am J Clin Nutr ; 77 — Strong persistence of overweight status and low efficacy of available treatments highlight the need to prevent overweight and obesity at the earliest possible stage of life.

Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. Perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Google Scholar 59 Adair LS. Introduction Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States, affecting the lives of millions of people. Musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children.

Obesity: Environmental strategies for preventing childhood obesity

There is therefore a need to implement effective programmes and policies in multiple sectors to address overnutrition, undernutrition, mobility and physical activity. Published : 25 November J Health Econ. Genes Are Not Destiny Heredity plays a role in obesity but generally to a much lesser degree than many people might believe.

Inobesity chilehood were low in Latin America and the Caribbean Fig. There is an increasing attention in the literature to the differences in vulnerabilities in boys and girls, suggesting different pathways to obesity. Stress, health, and the life course: some conceptual perspectives. Results Main results Table 1 summarizes the descriptive statistics of the imputed sample and Table 2 shows bivariate regression coefficients and p -values for each measure included in the final models.

Nat Rev Cancer. The probability of survival decreased with age, and the difference between the groups particularly increased from 23 years of age onward Fig 1. Childhood obesity: A call to action. Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity.

Statement of Financial Support None. In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically. Ane J Clin Nutr. A similar cluster-randomized trial in England studied the effects of the reduction of carbonated beverages on the number of children with obesity in 29 classes children. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention.

Introduction

Lotential distribution and life expectancy. Therapeutic interventions in childhood are somewhat more successful, particularly if the intervention occurs prior to onset of puberty Despite this work, the effects of traditional behavioural change interventions will be too small to relieve the global burden of obesity in childhood — at least in the short to medium-term [ 53 ].

Am J Epidemiol. Below, three of the more common health problems associated with childhood obesity are discussed, diabetes, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease. Childhood overweight: A contextual model and recommendations for future research. A healthy diet follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon.

These conditions include, but are not limited to, fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, Type childhood obesity trends and potential causes of climate diabetes, asthma, hepatic steatosis fatty liver diseasecardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, cholelithiasis gallstonesglucose intolerance and insulin resistance, skin conditions, menstrual abnormalities, impaired balance, and orthopedic problems. Arch Dis Child. The increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children's advocates, and parents. The study was approved by the regional ethics committee in Stockholm, Sweden No.

Early developmental conditioning of later health and disease: physiology or pathophysiology? Figure 11 shows the absolute numbers of girls and boys with obesity by country; again, clear regional patterns can be seen. The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review. Pharmacol Ther.

Introduction

Fig 1. Documents: Advanced Search Include Citations. Am J Epidemiol. Feeling fat rather than being fat may be associated with psychological well-being in young Dutch adolescents. Research indicates taste, followed by hunger and price, is the most important factor in adolescents snack choices.

Popkin BM. Received : 02 October Recently, declines in the level of obesity among pre-school-age children have obedity observed in New Zealand [ 70 ], Leeds UK [ 7172 ] and Amsterdam the Netherlands [ 73 ]. Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. However, we also found some exceptions to the hump-shaped trend.

It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. Causws obesity has been linked to numerous medical conditions. Portion sizes have increased drastically in the past decade. There is no consensus on a cut-off point for excess fatness of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. The emotional impact of obesity on children.

Related Information

Children with a family history of type 2 diabetes and those who are members of specific ethnic groups, including African American, Latino, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander American, experience an increased risk of the disease ADA, Recent results from the Global Burden of Disease study show that consumption of healthy foods is suboptimal, whereas that of unhealthy options exceeds recommended levels [ 46 ]. Journal of the American Medical Association. Clin Pediatr Phila ; 48 — These and other measures are at best crude approximations of underlying constructs.

In addition, BMI fails to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass muscle and bone and may exaggerate obesity in large muscular children. E-mail: moc. Body dissatisfaction Research has causes climate found that body satisfaction is higher in males than females at all ages. Data, Maps, and Trends Use these maps and interactive database systems to find information relating to nutrition, physical activity, and obesity. Acta Paediatr. In the clinical environment, techniques such as BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness have been used extensively. Although definition of obesity and overweight has changed over time, it can be defined as an excess of body fat BF.

Using the International Standard Classification of Education, education was childhood obesity trends and potential causes of climate as elementary, high school, or university score 0—2. Therefore, the aim cakses to examine whether individuals who had obesity in childhood have an increased risk of mortality in young adulthood, compared with a population-based comparison group. About childhood obesity. Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Body mass index in adolescence in relation to total mortality: year follow-up ofNorwegian boys and girls. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization.

Publication types

Factors affecting prevalence of overweight among 12 to 17 year old urban adolescents in Hyderabad, India. Median IQR age at death was This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Nutr Rev. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

Obesity in adolescence and adulthood and the risk of adult mortality. PLoS Med 17 3 : e It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. However, differences in basal metabolic rates are not likely to be responsible for the rising rates of obesity.

Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive description poetntial this work, presenting global, regional and national trends based on the most up-to-date information available. There are two primary components to the prevention and control of childhood obesity. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from to an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies. Obesity and skill attainment in early childhood. They find that economic freedom is associated with modestly higher BMIs for men but not women in developing nations. Impact of dietary and exercise interventions on weight change and metabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Activation of a lateral hypothalamic-ventral tegmental circuit gates motivation.

Background

In the clinical environment, techniques such as BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness have been used extensively. Information on parental education, occupation, and income was collected from the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies. Comparisons to previous studies In the present study the mortality rate in the childhood obesity cohort was

In other words, Americans can now eat more in less time. This study builds on ane previous research by introducing several additions that foster greater confidence in the results. One of the most serious consequences of overweight and obesity in children is type 2 diabetes. Work by governments, civil society, private corporations and other key stakeholders must be coordinated. Status syndrome: how your social standing affects your health and life expectancy.

Journal of Nutrition. Popkin BM. Lee, et al. Public Health Nutr ; 10 — Countries that are democratic might adopt more consumer protection and regulatory policies that could also shield the public from obesogenic foods.

Nutrition and the Diseases of Lifestyle. The emotional impact of obesity on children. This study found that individuals who had obesity in childhood had a 3 times higher risk of all-cause mortality in early adulthood compared with a population-based comparison group. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization. Our society tends to use food as a reward, as a means to control others, and as part of socializing. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Obesity Prevention

Bythe country with the highest prevalence of obesity in girls was Equatorial Childhood obesity trends and potential causes of climate, followed by Djibouti, Zambia and South Africa. Should we intervene to improve fetal and infant growth? Byobesity prevalence was highest in Kuwait and Egypt for girls and in Kuwait and Qatar for boys. Breastfed infants are at lower risk for later obesity 6970717273 for hypothesized reasons including that formula-fed infants develop greater reliance on external hunger cues 74 and have higher intake of protein 75which may contribute to obesity risk through behavioral and physiologic mechanisms, respectively. Int J Pediatr.

The causes of excess weight gain in young people are similar to those in adults, including behavior and genetics. Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous medical conditions. The present study found differences in cause-specific mortality between the groups. J Am Coll Cardiol. We can only speculate about reasons for these conflicting findings, but they might include different definitions of ethnicity and differences in healthcare systems between countries. Binge eating in obese children and adolescents.

Inwhile almost half of girls and boys in American Samoa were obese, climae was the case for fewer than 1 in 20 girls in Papua New Guinea and boys in Fiji. A focus on changing the food and physical activity environment will help to build a strong social movement. Women that are more empowered socially and legally may also experience less constrained gender roles that tie them to traditional homemaking tasks including cooking. Chase-Dunn C, Grimes P. The upstream influences on childhood obesity occur at many levels, including the family and the community, and begin very early in the life course. Childhood obesity: update on predisposing factors and prevention strategies.

  • Family-based interventions to improve the home food environment 90 and parenting style and policies to reduce the costs of healthy food choices are needed. Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence.

  • Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive.

  • A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. There is evidence that psychosocial stress is associated with obesity in children.

  • Family conditions, such as parental working status and education, that determine SES in early life are associated with mortality risk in adulthood [ 3637 ], and may also influence long-term morbidity [ 3538 ].

However, overall and among all subgroups the rate of growth in anv from kindergarten through 3rd grade has declined in recent years. We can only speculate about reasons for these conflicting findings, but they might include different definitions of ethnicity and differences in healthcare systems between countries. Mossberg HO. Body mass index in adolescence in relation to cause-specific mortality: a follow-up ofNorwegian adolescents.

Stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity: updated findings childhood obesity trends and potential causes of climate the community preventive services task force. For example, the prevalence of obesity varies among ethnic groups, age, sex, education levels, and socioeconomic status. Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: a bioecological model. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Weight status in the first 6 months of life and obesity at 3 years of age. Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: emerging gender differences in a year longitudinal study.

References

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Section Navigation. Keywords: Childhood obesity, consequences, epidemiology, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, overweight. A reverse power analysis showed that our study had a large enough study sample for the actual number of events.

They begin by reviewing research on energy intake, energy expenditure, and "energy balance," noting that children who eat more "empty calories" and expend fewer calories through physical activity are more likely to be obese than other children. Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating to safe places, such as their homes, where they may seek food as a comfort. The study was approved by the regional ethics committee in Stockholm, Sweden No. This prospective cohort study shows that individuals who had obesity in childhood already have an increased risk of death by early adulthood, compared with a population-based comparison group.

Children view between 20, and 40, commercials per year. Thus, czuses overnutrition may be a mechanism of intergenerational transmission of obesity and diabetes 67 Overall, it appears that poverty is associated with later obesity through its association with other obesity risk factors and through the stress process. Exercise and BMI in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a systematic review and trial sequential meta-analysis. Funding Not applicable.

While 1 study found a correlation between adolescent BMI and mortality risk before the age of 30 years [ 19 ], 2 of the studies did not find such an association [ 2022 ]. Finally, children spend more time viewing television and using computers. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Longitudinal trends in obesity in the United States from adolescence to the third decade of life. Balancing energy or calories consumed from foods and beverages with the calories burned through activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain.

A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Psychol Bull ; — Asthma and obesity: cliimate known association but unknown mechanism. In addition, with retained variables, we ran the models in a stepwise fashion with each set of main independent variable to assess whether there were substantial swings in effects from adding different variables and found the models to be quite stable see Additional file 1. This measure therefore accounts for the fact that food may be more expensive in some countries than others.

Contains 1 table, 7 figures, 4 footnotes, and 90 endnotes. Patricia Anderson and Kristin Butcher document trends in children's obesity and examine the potentia underlying causes of the obesity epidemic. Weight and height were measured for all individuals in the childhood obesity cohort; however, these data were not available in the comparison group. Association between impaired fasting glycaemia in pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Indian J Public Health. Death due to endogenous causes showed the most pronounced difference in the childhood obesity cohort compared to the comparison group, with an MRR of 4.

During a total ofperson-years of follow-up, deaths were recorded. The completeness and quality of the register has been described elsewhere, and it has been concluded that the register is of high quality with largely complete national coverage [ 28 ]. The impact of body mass index of 78, year old Dutch men on year mortality from all causes.

Analyses were performed with SAS version 9. The effect of weight loss and weight gain on blood pressure in children and adolescents with obesity. Waist circumference seems to be more accurate for children because it targets central obesity, which is and potential risk factor for type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. The emotional impact of obesity on children. Children aged 3 through 5 years should be physically active throughout the day for growth and development. Beck AR. These conditions include, but are not limited to, fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hepatic steatosis fatty liver diseasecardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, cholelithiasis gallstonesglucose intolerance and insulin resistance, skin conditions, menstrual abnormalities, impaired balance, and orthopedic problems.

Standardized information on BMI is available for about countries between and [ 919 ]. It may be that more established democracies are better able to adopt public health policies such as regulations on marketing of products that protect the public against the influence of big food. Article Google Scholar 8. The changing environment and population obesity in the United States.

Because of the enormity of corporate interests in the promotion of unhealthy foods and excessive eating and physical inactivity, changes obeisty needed in policies that impact the food and physical activity environment. Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight. While some have suggested that in parallel with trends in developed countries, it is increasingly the poor in developing countries that suffer from obesity [ 6576 ], other studies examining social gradients in obesity within countries have refuted this claim. Efforts to treat overweight children through dieting, drugs, or surgery only place these children at higher risk for ongoing health problems and serve to further stigmatize fat children.

Stigma contributes to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services, decreased physical activity, and increased weight gain, which worsens obesity and creates additional barriers to healthy behavior change. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av. BMC Med ; 11 Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ; —5. Inthe prevalence of obesity was highest in girls in Georgia and boys in Azerbaijan and lowest in both sexes in Kyrgyzstan.

ALSO READ: Android And Gynoid Obesity

However, it is also possible that the relationship between economic development and weight is not linear and that at low levels of development weight increases rapidly but then levels off with higher levels of development. Recent results from the Global Burden of Disease study show that consumption of healthy foods is suboptimal, whereas that of unhealthy options exceeds recommended levels [ 46 ]. Fogel R. Trends in childhood height and weight, and socioeconomic inequalities. JAMA Pediatr.

Am J Clin Nutr. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. For girls, the lowest prevalence of obesity was seen in North Korea, followed by Eritrea, Bangladesh and Burundi. As children transition through childhood and adolescence, susceptibility to the food and physical environments increases. Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition.

Acta Paediatr. A study conducted examined the eating habits of lean and overweight adolescents at fast food restaurants. Anderson and M. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Abstract Background Pediatric obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death from middle childhood obesity trends and potential causes of climate onward, but whether the risk is already increased in young adulthood is unclear. All medical data in the present study were collected within the healthcare system; hence, no self-reported data are present. J Adolesc Health. In research, techniques include underwater weighing densitometrymulti-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis BIAand magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.

Consequences of childhood obesity Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. Long-term childhpod and mortality of overweight adolescents. However, BMI SDS should be considered as a rough measurement since it does not correspond to the same fat percentage in different individuals. Supporting information. Many studies have examined the link between sugary drink consumption and weight and it has been continually found to be a contributing factor to being overweight. Weight-for-stature compared with body mass index-for-age growth charts for the United States from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Statistical analyses Descriptive statistics are presented as frequency and causes, mean and standard deviation SDor median and interquartile range IQR. Keywords: Childhood obesity, consequences, epidemiology, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, overweight. Consuming large portions, in addition to frequent snacking on highly caloric foods, contribute to an excessive caloric intake. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Obesity and asthma: pathophysiology and implications for diagnosis and management in primary care. Weight change across adulthood in relation to all cause and cause specific mortality: prospective cohort study. There are also several methods to measure the percentage of body fat.

Nutr Rev. Exploring the association between childhood and adolescent obesity and depression: a meta-analysis. Combined effects of overweight and smoking in late adolescence on subsequent mortality: nationwide cohort study.

They find that economic globalization predicts increases in BMI with modest effect ad coef. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands. J Health Soc Behav ; 35 — Studies have linked the epidemic to conditions including, but not limited to, the following: increasing portion sizes, increasing consumption of fast food and soft drinks, lack of funding for nutrition and physical activity programs, availability of soda and junk food on school campuses including preschools and after school programs, poor physical activity infrastructures in schools and communities, limited compliance with physical education requirements in many schools, limited access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods, and advertising of junk food to children and their families.

ALSO READ: Obesity Society 2010 Ram

Median IQR age at death was Am J Public Health. Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: A population-based case-control study. Intima media thickness in childhood obesity: relations to inflammatory marker, glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.

A host of factors have also contributed to reductions in energy expenditure. Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity. Changes in the family, particularly an increase in dual-career or single-parent working families, may also have increased demand for food away from home or pre-prepared foods. SES affects health throughout life [ 3435 ]. Still, a larger population, longer follow-up, and medical data in adulthood would allow more complex statistics, including stratification by sex, evaluation of whether the association is different across ages, and evaluation of whether obesity treatment outcome affects the outcome. In the present study the mortality rate in the childhood obesity cohort was Descriptive statistics are presented as frequency and percentage, mean and standard deviation SDor median and interquartile range IQR.

Front Pediatr. University of Ljubljana, Kongresni trg 12,Ljubljana, Slovenia. Table S4. However, it is also possible that the relationship between economic development and weight is not linear and that at low levels of development weight increases rapidly but then levels off with higher levels of development. References 1.

Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Previous studies have shown a correlation between adolescent BMI and risk of premature death in middle age from cardiovascular disease [ 2439 ], ischemic heart disease, and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases [ 21 ]. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. The largest difference in cause-specific death between the groups was for endogenous causes, where the MRR was 4 times higher in the childhood obesity cohort compared to the comparison group. Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services - Recommendations from an Expert Committee.

Research has consistently found that body satisfaction is higher in males than females at all ages. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Obesity as a medical problem. Health consequences of obesity. Extended international IOTF body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Accessed 3 Apr Google Scholar Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

  • Using the International Standard Classification of Education, education was categorized as elementary, high school, or university score 0—2.

  • Results Main results Table 1 summarizes the descriptive statistics of the imputed sample and Table 2 shows bivariate regression coefficients and p -values for each measure included in the final models.

  • See tips to help children maintain a healthy weight. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • Limitations Despite the many relationships between obesity and severe morbidities [ 47 ], it has been questioned whether it is possible to study associations between BMI and mortality under the age of 30 years because of the very low mortality rate [ 22 ]. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website.

Received : 25 April Activation of a lateral hypothalamic-ventral tegmental circuit gates motivation. Excess body fat is a major health concern in childhood and adolescent populations. Am J Public Health ; :e70—6. Haines J, Neumark-Sztainer D.

However, high levels of heterogeneity in policy are clmiate across countries, with low and middle-income countries relying more on such approaches and implementing them earlier than high-income countries. There is emerging speculation as to whether this association indeed exists at all, despite the abundance of literature on the topic. Furthermore, a research study has attempted to capture the complete picture of childhood obesity early life course risk factors. Int J Epidemiol. Karen Campbell Authors M.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?