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Dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity –

The standard errors of the percentages were estimated using Taylor Series Linearization, a method that incorporates the sample weights and sample design.

Lucas Cox
Saturday, February 29, 2020
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  • The author s read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Association of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle patterns with obesity and cardiometabolic comorbidities in Greek adults: data from the National Epidemiological Survey.

  • Simba, and T.

  • Given that obesity derived from a combination of causes and contributing factors, we are not able to have a casual inference in obesity. Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults a systematic analysis.

Correction

Figure 1 shows the PRISMA flow chart with numbers of included and excluded articles at each step of the review process, while table 3 provides a summary of all studies that met the inclusion criteria. Kiplamai, J. Preliminary data analysis included descriptive statistics, i. Simba, and T. Chiwanga, M.

Klotsche et al. Mpembeni, R. References 1. However, in some areas especially in rural accessibility is difficult during rain season. The overall mean age of the study participants was

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Ann Nutr Metab — The possible explanation for this could be reduced basal metabolism and reduced physical activities due to age. Soc Sci Med — Pedro Pallangyo, Zabella S. The corresponding author PP wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and other authors contributed to and approved it.

Methodology 2. Schneider, H. Moreover, the differences among males and females socuoeconomic residence type, educational level, occupation types, and average walking distance that were observed in this study could also be attributed to this finding. Another correlate of abdominal obesity was the walk distance per day. Ann Hum Biol 1: —

  • Osteoporos Int —

  • Conclusion Overall, our results showed that overweight and obesity were concentrated among well-off adults in the study population. The negative value of the C n suggests the concentration of the health outcome among the poor and vice versa.

  • You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

  • In addition, only studies of populations from SSA countries were included.

Hall, R. This might be due the reasons explained earlier by the previous studies that obesity in most developing countries is regarded as a symbol of power, wealth, and beauty, and hence, it is very common for the people with high social status [ 42 ]. Men were significantly older than women General Characteristics of the Study Population The general characteristics of the study population stratified by gender are illustrated in Table 1. Mvula, and D.

Wards were first stratified into two strata rural and urban. Accordingly, the conceptual framework that guided our analysis was developed obesity Malik and Hu Fig. Published online Oct With respect to watching television, the results show that the participants who spent some time watching television were more likely to have abdominal obesity than those who never watch television. In — and —, African-American and Mexican-American adults were oversampled.

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Bhargava A, Fox-Kean M The effects of maternal education versus cognitive test scores on child nutrition in Kenya. Of these, articles met the inclusion criteria, and 68 of the studies comprisingparticipants were used in quantitative synthesis. Muhihi, M.

  • The search strategy for this systematic review was completed in tandem with a sister publication examining the evidence for a physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and physical fitness transition among school-age children and youth in SSA; hence, the inclusion of these terms in the search strategy. J Obstet Gynaecol —

  • Accordingly, the conceptual framework that guided our analysis was developed by Malik and Hu Fig.

  • Glob Health Action. Benson T, Shekar M.

  • Obesity and associated lifestyle behaviours in Iran: findings from the first national non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance survey. Unwin, P.

Acta Paediatr — Balogun, R. The overall prevalence of abdominal obesity was found to be Findings from the quantitative synthesis were also complemented with narrative syntheses of the included studies. Narrative synthesis revealed higher body composition measures in the urban compared to the rural population.

Health Place 99— Discussion Worldwide, the epidemiological and demographic transitions have resulted in nutrition shift characterized by an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense fast food products [ 12348111315 ]. In addition, only studies of populations from SSA countries were included. Urban life is more characterized of unhealthy food such as high energy food and sedentary lifestyles such as reduced walking due to the availability of motorized transport, and so on[ 37 — 41 ], that predispose people into the risk of becoming obese. Adv Nutr. Conference Publication.

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Edwards, J. Trop Med Int Health — The number of people with both generalized and abdominal obesity has been increasing worldwide [ 1 — 4 ].

Learn More. Kandala N. Also, Mohammedi et al. Under dodom Tanzania Strategic Cities project the council is expecting to get several vehicles and machines which will ease the refuse collection work to the council. The mean age of the cohort population was Most of the Municipal roads are passable throughout the year. Ezekiel, E.

In addition, several open access journals relevant to SSA were identified and those journal web sites were searched for additional relevant papers. Weight perception in overweight adolescents: associations with body change intentions, diet and physical activity. Waist circumference was measured using the guideline of the WHO protocol for measuring waist and hip circumference [ 28 ]. Prevalence and severity.

Advances in Medicine

Part II. Hall, R. Over two-thirds of participants were regular alcohol consumers and 6. Accessed 24 June

Dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity The authors would like to thank all people who participated in the PERSIAN cohort study, and all staff members for collaborating in data collection. Open in a separate window. The findings from the previous studies show that the prevalence of overweight and obesity had increased significantly since the s, and the trend shows the prevalence has been doubling after every decade since the s [ 612152022 ]. Published online Feb Similar to the previous studies [ 46 ], the present study found that, watching television was associated with abdominal obesity. Mwiru, N.

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Body composition measures were socioeconomic profile to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban socioecomomic and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Increased hydration can be associated with weight loss. Kamadjeu, R. As the obesity pandemic escalates, its health consequences are inevitably accompanied by an overwhelming economic threat. This research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Consent Participants were informed about the study, and those who agreed to participate provided a written or verbal consent. There is no significant difference in obesity prevalence by poverty level among non-Hispanic white men. Mandate to employ, develop, promote, coordinators. Results 3.

Advances in Medicine

Nyaruhucha N. The operation of these water schemes is being done by the community themselves, through their water user committees. BioMed Research International. BMJ Open.

The upstream progile of adult obesity. Between — and — the prevalence of obesity increased in adults at all levels of income and education. Physical activity level had a positive influence on the overall inequality, and it explained 9. Road Networking 1. This study revealed a high prevalence of abdominal obesity among the people living in the Dodoma Region.

  • However, the difference in prevalence between males and females noted from this study is very large; hence, we recommend further studies on this area. Sodiq, K.

  • The time spent on watching television was also significantly associated with abdominal obesity whereby the odds of having abdominal obesity were higher among those who spent some time watching TV than those who never watch television. B: Enhance, sustain and effective implementation of the National Anti- corruption Strategy.

  • A total of articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. Minerva Pediatr —

  • Aparicio, J.

  • Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: a problem of the rich or the poor? Lack of interest by parents to send 3.

Shayo, and M. Weight perception in overweight adolescents: associations with body change intentions, diet and physical activity. J Nutr Educ Behav — This might be due the reasons explained earlier by the previous studies that obesity in most developing countries is regarded as a symbol of power, wealth, and beauty, and hence, it is very common for the people with high social status [ 42 ]. Chaturvedi, and G. Msuya, L.

Maintain rule of law in implementation of public policy and foster development community. Consent Participants were informed about the study, and those who agreed to participate provided a written or verbal consent. The estimated area for food crop production ishectares and about 49, hectares are for cash crops production. It had been emphasized earlier that local health information is very important for a country like Tanzania [ 24 ].

Revista Paulista de Pediatria — Published : 29 September Preliminary data analysis included descriptive statistics, i.

Baisley et al. Results Study population A total of participants were enrolled in this study. J Trop Pediatr 13— Obesity epidemic in urban Tanzania: a public health calamity in an already overwhelmed and fragmented health system. J Allergy Clin Immunol — The main strength of this review was the use of high quality standards to conceptualize and conduct the methodology and synthesis.

Ann Nutr Metab — South African Journal of Science 4—6. Smoothed percentile curves were created by first smoothing selected empirical percentiles, then creating parameters obtain the final curves, additional percentiles, and z-scores []. Ann Hum Biol 73— Acta Paediatr — Int J Pediatr Obes 3: —

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Weight perception in overweight adolescents: associations with body change intentions, diet and physical activity. Despite this fact, the information on overweight and obesity, particularly in most developing countries, is still scarce to address the problem. Msuya, L. Msyamboza, B. Kelishadi, S.

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition — Ann Hum Biol 79— Atanga, E. Conclusions The burden of obesity in urban Tanzania has reached the boiling point.

More worryingly though is the rapid transformation, escalation and adoption of the unhealthy lifestyle habits observed in this present study compared to studies conducted in the same setting some years ago. The majority of studies used in the quantitative synthesis scored 7 or higher. These results may, therefore, call for respective stakeholders to plan appropriate preventive measures that will prevent further health problems that are associated with obesity. BMC Endocr Disord 20,

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Academic Editor: Rahman Shiri. O BoxDar es Salaam, Tanzania. Obesity in biocultural perspective. Int J Epidemiol. The odds of having abdominal obesity were significantly higher among participants who walk less than 0.

Methodology 2. Using an asset index to assess trends in poverty in seven sub-Saharan African countries. Simba, and T. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity Table 1 reports the crude prevalence, age-and sex-standardized prevalence and adjusted OR for outcome variables by characteristics of participants. Among the study provinces, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari and Khouzestan had the lowest and the highest value of C n.

Adv Med. Dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity all study provinces, participants were recruited from urban settings and entered in the study by urbann cluster sampling. Iran Natural Environment Change. Contrary to previous studies [ 19 ], this study found that lower education than secondary school was protective for abdominal obesity. MJM conceived the idea, designed the study, and refined the methodological approach. Examples of obesity cut points at specific heights are shown in the Table.

Background

In some cases, the relationship between age and body composition measures differed between sexes; as such, we may conclude that there was no convincing or consistent evidence of an independent age effect. Huxley, S. J Pediatr —

Ogden, Molly M. Methodology 2. BoxDodoma, Tanzania. Mohammad Hajizadeh, Email: ac. This might suggest that people living in Dodoma are becoming more exposed to motorized transport, thus making them have less physical exercises, such as walking.

Ann Trop Paediatr sockoeconomic J Int Med Res. In just over 3 decades, overweight and obesity burden has nearly tripled to currently affecting over a third of the global population [ 1 ]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was significantly higher among women than men Killewo, A. Ethnic groups are composed of Bantu-speaking people. Benefice E, Cames C Physical activity patterns of rural Senegalese adolescent girls during the dry and rainy seasons measured by movement registration and direct observation methods.

BMC Public Health Papadopoulou, G. Google Scholar We would however like to caution the reader that describing an underweight trend was not an objective of this systematic review; as such, pertinent articles reporting on underweight may have been omitted during the literature search thereby skewing these results. Nutrition —

  • Achen, M.

  • Obes Rev. Lung T.

  • Hum Biol —

  • Socioeconomic status and obesity.

Hajian-Tilaki and B. Acknowledgements We thank the management and staff of the Jakaya Kikwete Cardiac Institute for their valuable support, dedication and hard work during this study. A total of participants were involved in this study, whereby Paediatr Int Child Health —

This could be as a result of the increasing urbanization in this Region. The Concentration index Cn measures inequality in the outcome variable e. Similar obesity were seen among men with some college or a high school diploma. Childhood obesity often tracks to adulthood 2 and, in the short run, childhood obesity can lead to psychosocial problems and cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes 3. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a longtidutional cohort study that shows the measurements only for a time point, not a period.

Ulijaszek SJ, Lofink H. Studies that used subjective dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Trends from to in daily breakfast consumption and its socio-demographic correlates in adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC study. Sante — This study was conducted in one of the regions of the country, namely, Dodoma.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. On This Page. Cancel Continue. In the present study, sex made a negative contribution to socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the participants. Mishandling of rural water equalization grants given to LGAs.

The measurements were done in triplicates, and the average obesitu used to represent the WC of an individual. Ethnic groups are composed of Bantu-speaking people. Another limitation of the previous studies conducted in Tanzania is that they had much of their focus on generalized obesity [ 14 — 22 ]. Flegal, Ph. Walker A.

Concomitantly, the rates of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating are disproportionately high in Dar es Salaam. View Article Google Scholar. The correlates of abdominal obesity found in this study were increased age, sex, area of residence, time spent on television, less walk, and marital status. Econ Hum Biol. Results 3.

Peltzer K, Pengpid S Overweight and obesity and associated factors among school-aged adolescents in Ghana and Uganda. Thornton SN. Furthermore, the nature of the study area inevitably limited participation of some population groups i. Results A total of articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. Vital Health Stat 11 1— Cardiovascular Risk Factors 2: 45— J Hum Hypertens 6: 47—

J Trop Med Hyg 2—8. World Health Organization Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Msuya, B. Body composition measures Of the included studies, 88 Despite our efforts, this study is not short of limitations.

Public-use data files are released in 2-year cycles. Given that women were more likely to be rich and obese, researchers need to identify the risk factors of obesity among different socioeconomic groups. Schneider J. Because in each group, the risk factors of obesity may be different from the other.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Eur J Clin Nutr — As such, we attempted to standardize the crude rates by acknowledging and adjusting with respect to the sample sizes in each of the included studies, and indicating graphically the sample size upon which a particular data point was based. Int J Cardiol —

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Sociodemographic and clinical data were dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity using a structured questionnaire during enrollment. Table 3 provides the score out of ten for all studies included in this systematic review. Calvert J, Burney P Effect of body mass on exercise-induced bronchospasm and atopy in African children. Men were significantly older than women The majority of studies used in the quantitative synthesis scored 7 or higher.

J Trop Pediatr — Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. Alaedini, A. As shown in table 3which includes a summary of the studies included in the review, the four regions of SSA were well represented, with 91 Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants.

Calvert J, Burney P Effect of body mass on exercise-induced bronchospasm and atopy in African children. Amugsi, Z. Curr Obes Rep.

Nutrition pprofile Conclusion Amidst the ever present undernutrition in SSA, a significant proportion of participants had excess body weight. Results 3. Furthermore, obesity carries an increased individual all-cause mortality risk and claims about 4 million lives annually [ 78 ]. Prista A Nutritional status, physical fitness and physical activity in children and youth in Maputo Mozambique. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis —

Thomsen, O. Following de-duplication, articles socioeconomif screened for eligibility, and articles were selected for a full-text review. Similar to the previous studies [ 46 ], the present study found that, watching television was associated with abdominal obesity. PubMed Article Google Scholar Similarly, participants who reported to walk a distance of 0. Muhihi, M.

CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. Jorjani Biomedicine Journal. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was reported to be significantly higher among nonsmokers as compared to the current smokers

The GBD. It is also unclear if any material relevant for this review may have been published in un-indexed journals and hence not captured by the literature search. BMC Public Health 8: Briefly, the IOTF methodology involved obtaining the body mass index for children from six large nationally representative cross sectional surveys on growth from Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United States. Moreover, the differences among males and females in residence type, educational level, occupation types, and average walking distance that were observed in this study could also be attributed to this finding. The number of people with both generalized and abdominal obesity has been increasing worldwide [ 1 — 4 ]. Med J Zambia 30—

Lack of District Hospital 8. The prevalence was significantly higher among participants who consumed three meals or more Derby C. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity Table 2 shows the distribution of abdominal obesity according to the selected characteristics of the study participants.

  • Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8: —

  • There are seasonal rivers, deep and shallow wells including dams in few villages. Most

  • Sante — J Trop Pediatr 13—

  • Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9: — Methodology 2.

Trop Med Int Health pdofile Study Design and Study Population This study is a quantitative cross-sectional survey. However, the loan did not cover any cost associated with the publication of this research. Vlahavas et al. World Health Organization Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks.

The estimated value of the normalized C n was decomposed to identify the contribution of explanatory variables to the observed socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity [ 47 ]. Clin Cardiol. Then, from each stratum, the representative wards were selected using simple random sampling methods. Academic Editor: Rahman Shiri. Mosha and S. The impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system.

Downs SH, Black N The feasibility of creating ogesity checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. Waist circumference was measured using the guideline of the WHO protocol for measuring waist and hip circumference [ 28 ]. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition Kiplamai, J.

Njelekela, M. Kiplamai, J. Studies were included if they reported using either subjective e. Atanga, E.

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Accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity to predict cardiovascular risk. Most On decomposing the causes of health sector inequalities with an application to malnutrition inequalities in Vietnam. Derby C. People with communication disorders who were not able to answer the study questions People with hearing and intellectual disability, mental disorders, and vision loss. All independent variables with value less than or equal to 0.

Trends from to in daily breakfast consumption and its socio-demographic socioeconomic profile in adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC study. Shields M Overweight Canadian children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. Despite this fact, the information on overweight and obesity, particularly in most developing countries, is still scarce to address the problem. The other 33 articles [] — [] mentioned using one of a number of other cut-points and reference standard groups including but not limited to Tanner et al.

It dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity be noted that marital status made a positive contribution to socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity as well. Sodoma, M. These key issues are as follows: 7. Although, Razavi Khorasan had the highest age-and sex-standardized prevalence The NHANES sample is selected through a complex, multistage design that includes selection of primary sampling units countieshousehold segments within the counties, and finally sample persons from selected households.

Weighted averages of obesity alone for boys and sociowconomic were 2. The number of people with both generalized and abdominal obesity has been increasing worldwide [ 1 — 4 ]. Reprints and Permissions. Strengths and limitations The strengths of our study include a sufficiently large sample to estimate the prevalence of obesity and to explore subgroup i. J Rural Med. Published : 29 September

This could imply that sedentary lifestyles, i. Reza Rezvani, Email: ri. Among men with a college degree, the prevalence of obesity increased from Because in each group, the risk factors of obesity may be different from the other. The regions are further divided into districts.

Overall, our findings suggest that the burden of overweight and obesity be disproportionately borne by individuals with higher SES. Davoud Vahabzadeh, Email: ri. Permission to conduct the study at each site was obtained from the regional, district, and ward authorities, respectively. Flegal, Ph.

Pettifor JM, Moodley GP Appendicular profile obesity mass in children with a high prevalence of low dietary calcium intakes. Urban life is more characterized of unhealthy food such as high energy food and sedentary soxioeconomic such as reduced walking due to the availability of motorized transport, and so on[ 37 — 41 ], that predispose people into the risk of becoming obese. Researchers kept their promise to widely disseminate the results of the study within health sector partners and the community. Methods Participants from this study were recruited in a community screening conducted during the Dar es Salaam International Trade Fair. Mfinanga, S. Alfawaz HA.

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The main strength of this review was the use of high quality standards to conceptualize and conduct the methodology and synthesis. Obesity and body size preferences of Jordanian women. Ital J Phys Act Health 9: — Administratively, the United Republic of Tanzania is divided into 30 regions i.

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a longtidutional cohort study that shows the socioeconomic profile only for a time point, not a period. Published online Oct General obesity and central adiposity in a representative sample of Tehranian adults: prevalence and determinants. Data Collection and Study Procedure Participants' demographic and lifestyle information were obtained through face-to-face interviews using a standard pretested questionnaire that was adopted from WHO steps for surveillance of noncommunicable diseases and modified for the study environment. This might suggest that people living in Dodoma are becoming more exposed to motorized transport, thus making them have less physical exercises, such as walking. Public-use data files are released in 2-year cycles. Inadequate working facilities 2.

  • Derby, S. This is particularly concerning when considering the school-aged child population as malnutrition affects their education outcomes, and consequently opportunities for success in later years [].

  • The author also carried out the literature search, data collection, and wrote the first draft of this manuscript. Physiological differences between male and female sex [ 31 ], types of daily activities, and cultural issues among sex could be among the possible explanation for this result [ 32 ].

  • Global burden of obesity in and projections to

  • Shields M Overweight Canadian children and adolescents.

  • J Dev Behav Pediatr —

  • Conference Publication: World Health Organization.

Of the 82 articles that used more widely accepted international cut-points, 11 studies [][][][][][]dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity[][][][] were removed due to having an identical study sample as an already included study, and 3 studies [][][] were removed for having not indicated the sample sizes in the age range of interest. The earliest relevant record captured was published in Benson T, Shekar M. This growing population health threat has garnered much attention in view of the declaration and global campaign on the prevention and control of NCDs signed by the United Nations in [7]. As shown in table 3which includes a summary of the studies included in the review, the four regions of SSA were well represented, with 91 Globally, the obesity epidemic is soaring and presage a serious public health threat.

Although, Razavi Khorasan had the highest age-and sex-standardized prevalence Shayo A. Alaedini, A. Other activities include small and medium industries, consultancy and construction work. This study revealed a high prevalence of abdominal obesity among people living in the Dodoma Region.

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6—12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni municipalities, Tanzania. Then, from each stratum, the representative pdofile were selected using simple random sampling methods. Search all BMC articles Search. While the health benefits of maintaining healthy body weights and an active lifestyle are well established [6]consumption of calorie-dense foods, declines in habitual physical activity, and increases in sedentary behaviour have been on the rise across developing nations [8].

Sodiq, K. Table 3 provides the score out of ten for all studies included in this systematic review. Growth — Obes Rev 8: — Furthermore, obesity carries an increased individual all-cause mortality risk and claims about 4 million lives annually [ 78 ].

The cohort population for each province has been presented in Appendix 1. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, dodomaa permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Overweight and obesity are a threat to the public health following their association with noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. The age-and sex standardized prevalence of obesity was higher in females than males

Public Health Nutrition. Metabolic equivalents METS in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. Lamb, Ph. Reddy, and J. On This Page.

Also, Kolahi et al. Unwin N. The present study faced some limitations. Most of the people are engaging in agricultural activities and production is labour intensive which is traditional method of production. Inadequate extension services.

Socioeconomic-related inequality in overweight and obesity was estimated using the Concentration Dodoma urban socioeconomic profile of obesity C n. Behavioral determinants of obesity: research findings and policy implications. Simple random sampling and Kish selection table techniques were used to get the sample who responded through a face-to-face-administered questionnaire. Derby, S. However, in this study, employment was found to be a risk factor for abdominal obesity only during univariate analysis.

Lamb, and Margaret D. This study was conducted in one of the regions of the country, namely, Dodoma. Proflle Obesity. The study objectives were clearly explained to the participants who gave their informed consent. Significantly more men A Tanzanian perspective on the nutrition transition and its implications for health. Please review our privacy policy.

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