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Glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity: Adipose tissue glucose uptake in obesity

Cell Tissue Res.

Lucas Cox
Thursday, August 22, 2019
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  • The contribution of adipose tissue to the whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is greater than earlier believed, and therapeutic interventions improving glucose disposal in fat depots may substantially affect the whole-body glucose disposal in obese subjects. Quantification of adipocyte size in white adipose tissue and laser-scanning confocal microscopy studies in isolated adipocytes were performed as described in the ESM.

  • To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Mario J.

  • Diabetologia 53, —

  • Beyond adiponectin and leptin: adipose tissue-derived mediators of inter-organ communication.

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Diabetes 62— This indicates that transgenic mice, when fed a high-fat diet, became obese similarly to controls, but remained insulin sensitive. Endocrinology : — Both hypotheses, which are not exclusive, allude to a potential role for B 1 R in adipose tissue. This suggests that lipid synthesis in adipose tissue is not dependent on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

PLoS Biol. Wang, H. Jash, S. Subjects Pre-diabetes. In adipocytes, triacylglycerol synthesis depends on the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate, which originates either from glucose, through glycolysis, or from lactate, through glyceroneogenesis. However, it is expressed in the epithelium of the colon and small bowel.

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Cusi, K. Genetic predisposition to an impaired metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids and risk of type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation analysis. Standardized rhinacanthins-rich extract RRE is a semi-purified extract obtained from R. Lonn, M. Kazak, L. Just leave your comment or question below.

Issue Section:. This probably reflects the potent activation of Gck by glucose [ 38 oesity. To validate this observation in an independent adipocytes and obesity vivo setting, we tested GLUT-1 induction upon browning induced by chronical CL treatment. Thus, a compartmentalisation of these pathways has been hypothesised, either in the same cell or in different adipose tissue cell types [ 7 ]. Kissebah AH. Search SpringerLink Search. Cells were differentiated into white EtOH treated or brite cPGI 2 treated adipocytes for 8 days and stimulated with different doses of Insulin for 20 minutes.

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Lipid and glucose metabolism genes are not rescued by expression of kinin B 1 receptor in fat. Download references. Targeting cardiac natriuretic peptides in the therapy of diabetes and obesity.

Since we found no significant upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis data not shownwe hypothesized that insulin-independent glucose transporters might be responsible. In summary, our obesify indicate that browning is accompanied by augmentation of GLUT-1 expression, thereby increasing glucose uptake into adipose tissue in an insulin-independent manner. Incorporation of 14 C radioactivity was measured and corrected by specific blood pyruvate 14 C clearance. Labros Sidossis. Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. An in vitro and in vivo perspective Diabetes 30 : — Open in new tab Download slide.

  • Aging enhances the insulin resistance in obesity through both receptor and postreceptor alterations.

  • Cidea is an essential transcriptional coactivator regulating mammary gland secretion of milk lipids.

  • Control mice, white bars; transgenic mice, black bars. The question remaining is what drives the massive glucose uptake of brite adipose tissue if not insulin?

  • Trends Immunol. Newgard, C.

  • Ten peripherally obese average age 43 y, average WHR 0. Search ADS.

These results correspond obeskty with a recent study using [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography method in moderately glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity men in which AD contribution to whole-body glucose uptake was increased in obese compared with nonobese subjects In contrast, estimated whole-body muscle glucose uptake was decreased in OB vs. Similarly, transgenic mice expressing Gck did not have increased fat accumulation and had higher lactate release by adipose tissue. You have full access to this article via your institution. For the estimation of whole-body fat mass, we used skinfold measurements Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. A two-tailed P value less than 0.

Fourteen lean, 12 overweight and 15 obese patients served as subjects. View Metrics. Informed consent was received from all subjects before participation. Glucose homeostasis and whole-body insulin sensitivity in Gck -expressing transgenic mice Tg and control mice Con.

MeSH terms

Sakagami, M. The day before the assay, insulin was removed from culture medium. Two new naphthoquinones with antiviral activity from Rhinacanthus nasutus. Apart from diabetes, obesity has been reported to be linked with atheromas, cardiovascular disorders, and malignant tumors.

Blood samples were withdrawn from the three sites before the meal and at to min intervals for glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity thereafter for measurements of insulin RIA; Linco Research, St. George Dimitriadis. In summary, our results suggest that an uncontrolled increase in glycolytic flux in adipose tissue leads to lactate production, rather than to higher glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis, fat accumulation and obesity. Figure S4. Regional adipose tissue insulin-stimulated glucose uptake plotted against fat mass. Only a few studies have examined differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake between intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

FewtrellJane E. Therefore, glyceroneogenesis and glycolysis adipocytess occur in the same cell, but not at the same time, and the feedback inhibition of HKII by glucose 6-phosphate may permit glyceroneogenesis from lactate to occur after the activation of glycolysis. Franckhauser, I. Full size image. Reaven GM Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. In contrast to the energy storing function of white adipose tissue WATbrown adipose tissue BAT has been long known in small mammals and newborns to defend body temperature at the expense of increased energy consumption through thermogenesis by uncoupling the electron transport chain from ATP synthesis via uncoupling protein-1 UCP-1 [2].

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Genetic and nongenetic determinants of regional fat distribution Endocr Rev 14 : 72— Effects of browning in vitro and in vivo. The contribution of adipose tissue to the whole-body adipocytrs glucose uptake is greater than earlier believed, and therapeutic interventions improving glucose disposal in fat depots may substantially affect the whole-body glucose disposal in obese subjects. In adipocytes isolated from obese subjects and examined in vitroinsulin-stimulated glucose uptake has been found to be increased 6 or decreased 78and there have been few studies examining the uptake of glucose by human AD in vivowith conflicting results. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue blood flow: variation within and between subjects and relationship to obesity.

  • Furthermore, this study suggests that in adipose tissue producing the enzyme HKII, glyceroneogenesis increased at high glucose due to the inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate. An in vitro and in vivo perspective Diabetes 30 : —

  • Iida et al. Show results from All journals This journal.

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  • Insulin resistance is the major cause of T2DM, the search of small molecules with insulin-like glucose uptake stimulation potential is an effective approach in diabetic treatment.

  • Steady-state conditions are required to obtain reliable and constant flux of glucose into the tissue and is therefore a prerequisite of the [ 18 F]FDG-PET method. Diabetes 49 : —

Low-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol was calculated according to the equation by Friedewald We therefore concluded that remodeling of glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity vasculature is crucial for brite recruitment avipocytes not for its function per se. Values are shown as relative to expression in white adipocytes, except for Ucp-1 which was not detectable in white adipocytes and is expressed as relative to levels in brite adipocytes. Elias, T. In contrast, circulating insulin levels tended to be lower in transgenic than in control mice, although mice remained normoglycaemic Fig. What role will this award play in your research efforts?

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Metabolic flexibility in health goucose disease. Guadagnini D. To determine glucose carbon incorporation adipocytes and fatty acid and glycerol, after the glucose oxidation as described above, adipocytes were collected in SDS 0. Finding the tools optimally suited to your needs helps to boost research. Others showed that the B 1 R blockade may protect from obesity and insulin resistance through inhibition of inammation in adipose tissue. Furthermore, despite increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue, transgenic mice expressing Gck did not accumulate more fat.

  • The thicker layer of sc adipose tissue in obese subjects could partly explain the lower rates of adipose tissue blood flow

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  • Insulin stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose transport in adipose tissue explants in obese and overweight compared to lean subjects was investigated.

  • Eight days after treatment, preadipocytes differentiation was terminated and stained with Oil Red O.

  • Table S3 Lipid parameters in the blood. Targeting a ceramide double bond improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

About this article. Article Google Adippocytes References 1. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis also revealed that genes involved in insulin signaling were significantly affected by the presence of the kinin B 1 receptor in adipose tissue. In the present study we show that stimulation of constitutively expressed kinin B 1 R in mouse epididymal adipocytes promotes glucose uptake by these cells. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. A representative western blot is shown.

The constant was found to be 1. Limitations of the bioelectrical impedance method for glucoxe assessment of body fat in severe obesity. Therefore, despite the fact that the intraabdominal visceral adipose tissue is metabolically more active than sc adipose tissue per tissue weight, the large sc adipose tissue depot is more important to whole-body glucose metabolism. Because glucose uptake rates were not measured at basal state in our study, it was not possible to quantify the net effect of insulin. Obesity, in particular visceral obesity, is associated with an increase in insulin resistance. NOB

Subjects and Methods

Geneva: World Health Organization; In adipocytes, triacylglycerol synthesis depends on the obesityy of glycerol 3-phosphate, which originates either from glucose, through glycolysis, or from lactate, through glyceroneogenesis. Maeda, K. Moreover, the increase in glyceroneogenesis observed in transgenic mice was parallel to higher expression of Pepck Fig. Naphthoquinone esters from the root of Rhinacanthus nasutus.

  • The level of the midslice and the upper and lower border of the area imaged were drawn on the skin of the subjects and the same imaging area was used in PET imaging to confirm congruent data between PET and MRI.

  • Mol Endocrinol 24— Diabetes 59—

  • Discussion It is generally accepted that lipid storage in adipose tissue depends mainly on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to generate the glycerol 3-phosphate necessary for fatty acid esterification.

  • Kurz family Acanthaceaea medicinal herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has traditionally been used in the treatment of various disorders including DM. Kinins are peptides that participate in a wide range of physiopathological processes.

The three-compartment model of [ 18 F]FDG kinetics was used as described earlier These results correspond favorably with a recent study using [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography method in moderately obese men in which AD contribution to whole-body glucose uptake was increased in obese compared with nonobese subjects Download PDF. Limitations of the bioelectrical impedance method for the assessment of body fat in severe obesity.

  • Results were obtained from pools of five mice for each group as indicated in the text and the ESM.

  • Convertible adipose tissue in mice. Bezaire, V.

  • In the femoral region, ROI were additionally drawn in the anteromedial muscle compartments in four cross-sectional slices, carefully avoiding large blood vessels Acknowledgements We thank: M.

  • The physical characteristics of the central obesity and peripheral obesity groups are shown in Table 2.

Special Issues. Romani, M. Following incubation, glucose oxidation rate was determined by measuring [ 14 C]CO 2 by liquid scintillation counting as previously described In addition to glucose transport, glucose utilisation also depends on glucose phosphorylation. Fouladiun, M. Received 28 Sep

Body fat content and histological analysis The fat content of mouse carcasses was measured as previously described by Salmon and Flatt [ 30 ]. Create new account. This might explain the finding that the rates of glucose uptake per depot were similar in obese and nonobese. In the brite state, the amount of whole-body glucose uptake attributable to WAT increases to the level contributed by the heart, but not to the level of BAT-associated glucose consumption in the basal, and almost to the same extent as BAT in the insulin stimulated state Fig. Conceived and designed the experiments: KM SH.

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Please review our privacy policy. Gene regulation in beta-sitosterol-mediated stimulation of adipogenesis, glucose uptake, and lipid mobilization in rat primary adipocytes. The decreased expression of Rbp4 in adipose tissue and the subsequent decrease in RBP-4 serum levels in transgenic mice may have contributed to higher insulin sensitivity in these mice Fig. De novo lipogenesis in metabolic homeostasis: More friend than foe?

  • Ciaraldi TPMolina JMOlefsky JM Insulin action kinetics in adipocytes from obese and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects: identification of multiple cellular defects in glucose transport.

  • Fain, J.

  • The effect of the increased circulating lactate concentration on hepatic metabolism was examined next.

  • Article Contents Subjects and Methods. In addition, although there are few studies of the relative contribution of pyruvate, via glyceroneogenesis, vs glucose, via glycolysis, to glyceride—glycerol synthesis, it has been demonstrated that glyceroneogenesis is quantitatively the predominant source of glycerol in triacylglycerol [ 78 ].

  • Trends Pharmacol Sci 10 : —

Methods Adipochtes Biol — Stolic, M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms adipocytes and the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. References 1. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate per tissue mass was higher in visceral adipose tissue, compared with sc depot, regardless of the magnitude of obesity. Eirini Maratou.

Site differences in insulin receptor binding and insulin action in subcutaneous fat of obese females. Proc Nutr Soc — The in vivo glucose utilisation index in epididymal WAT was determined by the intravenous flash injection of deoxy- d -[ 3 H]glucose Amersham as previously described by Franckhauser et al. No difference in insulin induced 2-deoxyglucose transport was observed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue explants of subjects with either central or peripheral obesity. Peripheral Glucose Metabolism in Acromegaly. Thank you for visiting nature. Steady-state conditions are required to obtain reliable and constant flux of glucose into the tissue and is therefore a prerequisite of the [ 18 F]FDG-PET method.

Hormone and metabolite concentrations were determined as indicated in the ESM. This study was undertaken in morbid obesity to investigate insulin action on glucose disposal in AD and muscle M. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91 : — Biol Pharm Bull — Am J Clin Nutr 73 : — B Change in body weight and C fat mass during 10 days of treatment in mice implanted with subcutaneous s.

Introduction

All antibodies were obtained from eBioscience. Franckhauser contributed equally to this study. Revised : 12 June

Explants were incubated in 0. Because the obese subjects had lower whole-body uptake rates and enlarged body fat masses, the relative contribution of abdominal adipose tissue compartments to the whole-body glucose uptake was greater in the obese 4. Glucose uptake can be 2—5 times higher in isolated adipocytes than that found in vivo. This proposal will evaluate whether increased blood sugar in people with obesity is associated with defects in adipose tissue glucose uptake or whether increased adipose tissue glucose uptake helps maintain normal blood glucose concentration in obese people with normal blood glucose concentration. Defective insulin signaling impairs basal brite state while still allowing efficient brite recruitment in WAT.

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Incubation media were not supplemented with non-labelled glucose. High levels of circulating leptin in adipose tissues characterise human obesity [ inn ] and increased levels of body fat [ 17 ]. Taken glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity a whole, the biodistribution method with 18 F-FDG was confirmed to be useful for pharmacological evaluation of anti-diabetic or anti-obesity drugs using disease-model animals. Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 20— Natriuretic peptides: a new lipolytic pathway in human adipocytes. The same tendency was shown also in control mice, but clear increments in glucose uptake were not observed in the muscle and brown adipose tissue of DIO mice after insulin administration.

Results were obtained from pools of five mice for each group as indicated in the text and the ESM. J Clin Invest 87 : — Paired samples of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue were taken from each patient to determine if differences in insulin sensitivity occur and whether this is affected by the level of adiposity or body fat distribution. While it does not seem that impaired insulin sensitivity that can result from obesity impairs the capacity of WAT browning, it is well possible that innate variability in the recruitment of brite adipocytes might lower the capability of an individual to utilize glucose and thus render the subject more prone to obesity and insulin resistance. Overproduction of the key enzyme of glyceroneogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCKin adipose tissue leads to increased glycerol 3-phosphate, NEFA re-esterification, adipocyte hypertrophy and obesity [ 4 ]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91 : — It is generally accepted that lipid storage in adipose tissue depends mainly on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to generate the glycerol 3-phosphate necessary for fatty acid esterification.

Publication types

Besides myocytes, adipocytes are also highly insulin-responsive cells. However, because of the larger fat mass, total abdominal adipose tissue glucose uptake is not decreased in obese subjects. Prediction of total subcutaneous abdominal, intraperitoneal, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue masses in men by a single axial magnetic resonance imaging slice. This project focuses on obesity and evaluates the role of adipose tissue regulating plasma glucose concentration.

S2C, D. J Clin Invest 68 : — Decrease in glucose transport system activity J Clin Invest 68 : glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity Densitometric quantification of circulating RBP-4 protein levels was performed by using Ponceau staining. Although there is clear mechanistic evidence for insulin resistance in adipocytes, it is, however, still not clear to what extent this contributes to whole-body resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in obese subjects.

GLUT4 is a obesiry glucose transporter predominantly expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues such as muscle and adipocytes [ 13 ]. Adipocytes and probably reflects the potent activation of Gck by glucose [ 38 ]. Voigt root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The fate of glucose in adipose tissue was then confirmed by 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. However, the half maximal effective concentration, EC 50was similar in control and transgenic mice control EC 50 0. Bezaire, V. Perry, R.

Fat droplets in these cells were visualised and photographed Figure 2. Scherer, P. Adipocyte metabolism offers promising targets for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases and cancer-associated disorders. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance.

  • Metabolism 36 : —

  • Furthermore, this uuptake suggests that under physiological conditions, when blood glucose increases, glyceroneogenesis may prevail over glycolysis for triacylglycerol formation because of the inhibition of hexokinase II by glucose 6-phosphate. In light of the potent lipolytic effect of NP previously observed in human adipocytes 9it may seem paradoxical at first glance that NP can also trigger glucose uptake.

  • The Raw fluorescence intensity values were normalized by quantile normalization.

  • Adipose tissue blood flow in various abdominal tissue regions. Informed consent was received from all subjects before participation.

Mature adipocytes were seeded in well plates and grown until confluence. Show results from All journals This journal. Risk of diabetes-associated diseases in subgroups of patients with recent-onset diabetes: a 5-year follow-up study. Figure 3.

Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo ; 46 —8. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Nat Rev Endocrinol 17, — In vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a standardized Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract in comparison with its major active constituent rhinacanthin-C. These evidences show that decreased adipocytes differentiation may trigger the adipocytes to release the triglyceride into the medium. Thiazolidinediones and the promise of insulin sensitization in type 2 diabetes.

Results: In adipose tissue from lean subjects transport of 2-deoxyglucose over basal was stimulated approximately two-fold by insulin. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Glucos validate this observation in an independent in vivo setting, we tested GLUT-1 induction upon browning induced by chronical CL treatment. Mechanism of insulin-resistant glucose transport activity in the enlarged adipose cell of the aged, obese rat. Cells were differentiated into white EtOH treated or brite cPGI 2 treated adipocytes for 8 days and stimulated with different doses of Insulin for 20 minutes. Lipid uptake and mobilization have also been demonstrated to be more active in intraabdominal fat 5indicating a more active metabolic role of visceral than sc fat depot. Primary Specialty.

Pedersen O, Gliemann J. We therefore differentiated primary mouse adipocytes for 8 days with and without cPGI 2 in the medium as described above. Volume

As browning of adipocytes did overcome the inhibitory effect on 3H-2DOG uptake of a GLUT-1 blocker, GLUT-1 induction alone might only partially explain the increased glucose uptake and compensatory mechanisms might exist adipoyctes browning. Eleni Boutati. NOB Fig. The insulin receptor density is decreased 910 and the glucose transport system is less effective because of a reduced number of glucose transporters in the intracellular pool There is clear evidence that obese, insulin resistant subjects display reduced brown fat activity [45]which might be primarily due to impaired brite recruitment [14][16] — [19]. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions.

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Emerging complexities in glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity origins and identity. Diabetes 43 lbesity 53— Characterization of the functional interaction of adipocyte lipid-binding protein with hormone-sensitive lipase. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Moreover, the increase in glyceroneogenesis observed in transgenic mice was parallel to higher expression of Pepck Fig. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page.

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate per tissue mass was higher in visceral adipose tissue, compared with sc depot, regardless of the magnitude of obesity. Results: In adipose tissue from lean subjects transport of 2-deoxyglucose over basal was stimulated approximately two-fold by insulin. Methods Generation of transgenic mice A 3. Plasma lactate is elevated in obese individuals and this increase is higher when obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes [ 32 ]. View Article Google Scholar 7. E Absolute uptake and F uptake relative to non-insulin-stimulated conditions is shown. Defective insulin signaling impairs basal brite state while still allowing efficient brite recruitment in WAT.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Impact of reduced ATGL-mediated adipocyte lipolysis glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation in male mice. However, although the regulation of RBP-4 production in WAT remains unclear, our results suggest that it is probably regulated not by lipid accumulation, but by glucose flux into adipose tissue. Growth retardation, impaired triacylglycerol catabolism, hepatic steatosis, and lethal skin barrier defect in mice lacking comparative gene identification CGI Adiposity analysis in transgenic mice expressing Gck Tg and control mice Con.

  • Metabolism 38 : — However, the half maximal effective concentration, EC 50was similar in control and transgenic mice control EC 50 0.

  • Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 20—

  • Sotirios A. Conclusions The beneficial effects of a higher BAT activity and brite recruitment on total energy expenditure are undisputed.

  • One is the assumption of a constant hydration factor.

  • Table 1. Article Navigation.

Fischer, J. The Journal of biological chemistry— Microarray analysis was performed as previously described [37]. Data Data behind the article This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources. Kursawe, R. Male control mice Con and transgenic Tg mice, 2 months old, were fed a high-fat diet for 11 weeks.

The obesjty of whole-body glucose uptake was calculated during the same period that the measurements of adipose tissue blood flow and glucose uptake were performed. Glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity AH. After injecting glucose at 1 or 2 g per kg body weight, glycaemia reached a lower level in transgenic mice compared with controls, indicating higher glucose disposal in the transgenic mice Fig. AD glucose uptake was decreased in OB vs. Glucose transport is considered a key regulatory step in insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation in adipocytes. In the patients with central obesity, as determined by WHR, an increase in insulin resistance in omental adipose tissue but not in subcutaneous adipose tissue was seen. Google Scholar PubMed.

  • Abstract Objective: To examine and compare in vitro basal and insulin-stimulated obesihy uptake in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue derived from lean, overweight or obese individuals, and in those with central or peripheral obesity. For image processing, a recently developed Bayesian iterative reconstruction algorithm using median root prior with iterations and the Bayesian coefficient of 0.

  • Park, J. Both hypotheses, which are not exclusive, allude to a potential role for B 1 R in adipose tissue.

  • S2C, D. Table 1.

  • Search ADS.

  • Oxford Academic.

Since we found no significant upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis data not shown uptzke, we hypothesized that insulin-independent glucose transporters might be responsible. The design of obesity study is shown in Fig. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70 : — Insulin receptor kinase in human skeletal muscle from obese subjects with and without non-insulin dependent diabetes. Discussion It is generally accepted that lipid storage in adipose tissue depends mainly on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to generate the glycerol 3-phosphate necessary for fatty acid esterification.

Roy J SAS for mixed models 2nd edition. Morbidly obese difference in insulin inhibition of non-esterified fatty acid release from human adipocytes: relation to insulin receptor phosphorylation and intracellular signalling uptwke the insulin receptor substrate-1 pathway Diabetologia 41 : — In addition, very few studies have examined the influence of sex on adipose tissue glucose uptake, and direct comparisons with these studies to ours cannot be made due to the fact that no other studies have taken into account the influence of BMI and WHR on sex-related differences. Eur J Clin Invest 1 : — S2B and G l ower panel. J Lipid Res — Figure 2.

INTRODUCTION

Design: In vitro study of basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants derived from patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery. View Article Google Scholar. General Research Subject: Obesity.

The effect of insulin on the disposal morbidly obese intravenous glucose. Related articles in PubMed Comparison of transcriptome between high- and low-marbling fineness in longissimus thoracis muscle of Korean cattle. Two catheters were inserted, one in a left hand antecubital vein for infusion of glucose and insulin and injections of [ 15 O]H 2 O and [ 18 F]FDG, and another in the radial artery in the right hand for blood sampling. Nevertheless, despite a marked decrease in glucose transport, these mice do not show differences in adipose mass and adipocyte size [ 1314 ].

A multiplexed preamplification process was performed on every 1. Wider, and E. Guadagnini D. Eissing, L. Short-term treatment with BNP induced a time-dependent activation of Akt Ser phosphorylation, nearing 1.

Genetics — In both groups AD exported lactate both in the fasting state 0. Biochim Biophys Acta — Pedersen OHjollund ESorensen NS Insulin receptor binding and insulin action in human fat cells: effects of obesity and fasting.

After 10 days mice were sacrificed. S1A, B. J Clin Invest 57 : —

We next performed an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test ITT to assess insulin response in CL and vehicle-treated animals. In agreement with increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was higher in glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity muscle from transgenic mice Fig. This indicates that transgenic mice, when fed a high-fat diet, became obese similarly to controls, but remained insulin sensitive. In the nonobese subjects, this is more than previously suggested 40whereas in the obese subjects, it is in the same magnitude as earlier shown 14 Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 1: — J Clin Invest : —

Obesity is a growing problem in Western society, and is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. View at: Google Scholar A. Mann, J. Root and its effect on GLUT4 translocation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

In addition, serum levels of triacylglycerol, leptin and adiponectin remained unchanged between both groups Fig. B: GLUT4 translocation in epididymal fat at basal states or after insulin stimulation 10 U intravenous bolus for 10 min. Rezali et al. CAS Google Scholar.

  • A Heatmap showing differential mRNA expression between confluent primary inguinal white adipose tissue iWAT precursor cells differentiated for 24 h with white EtOH treated or brite cPGI 2 treated differentiation cocktail and between absence or presence of insulin Ins in the medium. Vaia Lambadiari.

  • Wang, W. Obesity and cancer.

  • Measurements: Fatness and fat distribution parameters by anthropometrybasal and insulin stimulated [ 3 H]deoxyglucose uptake in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants.

  • However, expanded total fat mass provides a sink for the excess of glucose and compensates for insulin resistance.

Cho, M. In addition, although there are few studies of the relative contribution of pyruvate, via glyceroneogenesis, vs glucose, via glycolysis, to glyceride—glycerol synthesis, it has been demonstrated glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity glyceroneogenesis is quantitatively the predominant source of glycerol in triacylglycerol [ 78 ]. Nature communications 7 Kantawan, and W. Isofluorane-anaesthetised mice were killed by decapitation and samples were taken between and In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Targeting white fat metabolism offers opportunities for improved patient stratification and a wide, yet unexploited, range of therapeutic opportunities.

  • Uptake rates were measured 45 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of insulin or vehicle.

  • Nature— Adipocytes synthesise triacylglycerol by esterification of non-esterified fatty acids with glycerol 3-phosphate; net lipid deposition occurs when the rate of esterification is higher than the rate of lipolysis.

  • This award will stir my research into a new direction focusing on diabetes prevention with a personalized medicine approach by trying to understand why some, but not all people with obesity develop prediabetes and diabetes and how adipose tissue function affects the risk. Diabetes Care 30 : —

  • Chemical structures of rhinacanthin-C 1rhinacanthin-D, 2 and rhinacanthin-N 3.

  • This review questions the classical view of de novo lipogenesis as a detrimental pathway.

  • Intraabdominal fat depots cannot be reached by these methods.

In adipocytes, basal cells glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity with normal glucose without the presence of insulin and 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity require a glucose transporter. Aboulaich, N. Partial lipodystrophy and insulin resistant diabetes in a patient with a homozygous nonsense mutation in CIDEC. Similarly, transgenic mice expressing Gck in adipose tissue displayed increased lactate levels only in fed conditions or after a glucose load. Effects of hormones on glucose metabolism and lipolysis. However, glucose is traditionally viewed as the main precursor of the glycerol backbone and thus, enhanced glucose uptake would be expected to result in increased triacylglycerol synthesis and contribute to obesity.

In adipocytes isolated from obese subjects and examined in vitroinsulin-stimulated glucose uptake has been found to be increased 6 or decreased 78and there have been few studies examining the uptake of glucose by human AD in vivowith conflicting results. Mol Aspects Med — Diabetes 49 : — Correspondence to F.

In obese subjects, hepatic glucose production is increased 2 soyo ceramic morbidly obese, 3and there is a defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into muscle 45. S2C, D. Basal obbesity uptake in either omental or subcutaneous adipose tissue did not differ significantly between subjects with peripheral and central obesity data not shown. In agreement with increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was higher in skeletal muscle from transgenic mice Fig. In a recent study using [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography method in moderately obese men, expanded fat mass provided a sink for glucose, despite fat insulin resistance

It is not entirely clear if the BAT detected in humans consists of classical brown or brite adipocytes or a mixture [14][16] — [19]. Furthermore, glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity suggest that a chronic increase in circulating lactate levels is not sufficient to lead to insulin resistance and point to the indirect pathway glucose to lactate to glycerol 3-phosphate as being key for fat deposition in adipose tissue. Am J Physiol E—E In congruence with that, mice haploinsufficient for the retinoblastoma protein gene display improved glucose tolerance under an obesogenic diet which goes along with increased body core temperature and remodeling of WAT vascularization [53]. In accordance, earlier investigation has revealed evidence for a constant blood flow supply per cell in an expanding adipose tissue mass

  • Blood flow rate per kilogram tissue was highest in visceral adipose tissue in all subjects but was not statistically different from sc or perirenal adipose tissue. Background and Aims: Although whole-body insulin resistance in obesity is established, information on insulin action in peripheral tissues, especially adipose tissue ADis limited.

  • Figure 4 illustrates the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the compounds.

  • Cells were differentiated into white EtOH treated or brite cPGI 2 treated adipocytes for 8 days and stimulated with different doses of Insulin for 20 minutes.

  • Erikci Ertunc, M. Review Free to read.

Interestingly, cold exposure induces vascular glucosse growth factor VEGF expression in adipose tissue independently of glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity and tissue-specific overexpression of VEGF increases energy expenditure and improves whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice [51][52]. While skeletal muscle from both control and transgenic mice did not produce GK results not shownliver from both groups showed a 2. For the estimation of whole-body fat mass, we used skinfold measurements You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Clin Chem 18 : — J Nucl Med 27 : — Although brite differentiation of adipocytes as well as browning of white adipose tissue entailed substantially elevated glucose uptake by adipose tissue, the capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake surprisingly was not higher in the brite state. Enerback S Human brown adipose tissue. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and circulating serum RBP-4 levels in Gck -expressing transgenic mice Tg and control mice Con. Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans Am J Physiol : E— FA, fatty acid; Gly-gly, glyceride—glycerol.

Hidalgo, A. Obesity frequently entails detrimental secondary diseases and therefore represents the fifth leading risk for global deaths [1]. Oxford University Press is a department of adipocytes and University of Oxford. After injecting glucose at 1 or 2 g per kg body weight, glycaemia reached a lower level in transgenic mice compared with controls, indicating higher glucose disposal in the transgenic mice Fig. Representative northern blots from epididymal WAT, interscapular BAT and liver from control and heterozygous transgenic mice from line 1 Tg1 and line 2 Tg2hybridised with a Gck probe are shown.

We survey recent advances in humans on the importance of adipocyte hypertrophy and on the in vivo turnover of adipocytes and stored lipids. Walford, G. Regional impact of adipose tissue morphology on the metabolic profile in morbid obesity. In addition, treatments of L6 myotubes showed that RRE 2. RELM-alpha is secreted by adipocytes, but it lacks one cysteine and is thus a monomeric protein.

Vilalta for technical assistance; Glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity. Triacylglycerol hydrolysis by lysosomal acid lipases after engulfment of a lipid droplet by an autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes. Shabeena, S. Here we show that kinin B 1 R in adipocytes contribute to the regulation of systemic insulin sensitivity and predisposition to HFD-induced obesity. Published : 10 July However we can also emphasize the strengths of the current study: 1 Gene expression data and associations with surrogates of insulin sensitivity were observed in a large sample size from two independent cohorts. Diabetes 45 Suppl 1S—

In some fat depots, there is glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity bidirectional switch between white and beige adipocytes, which display an oxidative phenotype with energy dissipation through uncoupling protein 1 UCP1 -dependent and UCP1-independent pathways. Insulin administration stimulated glucose uptake in both Wistar lean and fatty rats, although the responses were inhibited in Wistar fatty rats. Abstract Background Kinins participate in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes by mechanisms which are not fully understood. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 promotes brown adipose tissue thermogenesis via repressing glucocorticoid activation.

Trends Endocrinol Metab — A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. Ying, W. Am Heart J— B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide are depressed in obesity despite higher left ventricular end diastolic pressures.

J Clin Invest — Accepted : 09 July Nuclei of adipocytes were marked glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity blue Hoechst stain solution. In contrast, circulating insulin levels tended to be lower in transgenic than in control mice, although mice remained normoglycaemic Fig. Glucose homeostasis and whole-body insulin sensitivity in Gck -expressing transgenic mice Tg and control mice Con. Incubation media were not supplemented with non-labelled glucose. Finally, in order to examine whether expression of Gck in adipose tissue prevents diet-induced insulin resistance, mice were fed a high-fat diet.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93 : — So far, our data indicate that compromised insulin signaling does not interfere with the browning potential of white adipocytes and WAT. Pharmacologically induced browning promotes GLUT-1 expression. However, lactate levels were higher in transgenic mice than in control mice, though blood glucose levels were lower Fig. Adipose tissue masses in abdominal region were measured as earlier described by Abate et al. Adipose tissue has a very specific capacity of increasing its mass by accumulating fat storage.

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This insulin resistance may be an acquired defect related to the excess accumulation of adipose tissue mass in this store. Alternatively, predisposed subjects with an intrinsic insulin resistance in their glucose uptake in adipocytes and obesity adipocytes may result in these subjects developing central adiposity. In order to determine whether glucokinase production led to increased insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, the response in glucose uptake to insulin dose in isolated adipocytes from control and transgenic mice was measured. Whole-body and adipose tissue glucose metabolism in response to short-term fasting in lean and obese women. Clin Sci Colch 90 : —

Elias, A. Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. In addition, very few studies have examined the influence of sex on adipose tissue glucose uptake, and direct comparisons with these studies to ours cannot be made due to the fact that no other studies have taken into account the influence of BMI and WHR on sex-related differences. J Lipid Res — Skip to main content. Figure 3. Approach to diagnosing a pediatric patient with severe insulin resistance in low- or middle-income countries.

Ertunc, M. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Diabetologia 62— Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes and found in low levels in the gastric fundic epithelium, intestine, skeletal muscle, mammary epithelium, placenta, and brain [ 15 ]. Chitraju, C. Pflimlin, E. Zwick, R.

  • The tissue is relatively intact, making it possible to consider the influence of stromal factors on glucose uptake. Search ADS.

  • Targeting insulin to the liver corrects defects in glucose metabolism caused by peripheral insulin delivery.

  • Epididymal fat pads were fixed for 12—24 h in formalin, embedded in paraffin and then sectioned. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was also performed.

Sengenes, C. Lee, N. USA 77— Discussion It is generally accepted that lipid storage in adipose tissue depends mainly on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to generate the glycerol 3-phosphate necessary for fatty acid esterification. Adipose tissue remodeling and obesity. Diluted cDNA 2. Verboven, K.

Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. Calculation of glucose-uptake Tissue-specific glucose aadipocytes rate was calculated by using average plasma 3 H activity, calculated as area under the curve, and average plasma glucose concentration as described [32] with kn as described elsewhere [33][34]. In nonobese subjects, the rate of insulin stimulated glucose uptake per kilogram tissue was higher in visceral and perirenal fat depots Because glucose uptake rates were not measured at basal state in our study, it was not possible to quantify the net effect of insulin. Previously, isolated adipocytes of obese individuals and patients with diabetes have been shown to be insulin resistant 163536whereas the results obtained in vivo have been heterogeneous 13 — This suggests that glyceroneogenesis and glycolysis occur simultaneously in adipose tissue in the presence of increased glucose uptake by this tissue. Reaven GM Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease.

Nakamura, S. Diabetes 66— Finally, in order to examine whether expression of Gck in adipose tissue prevents diet-induced insulin resistance, mice were fed a high-fat diet. Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

This review questions the classical view of de novo lipogenesis as a detrimental pathway. Diluted cDNA 2. Biomed Prev Nutr. Eur J Endocrinol : —

Increased fat mass compensates for insulin resistance in abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs in adipose tissue obtained from overweight as well as obese individuals. New issue alert. Physiol Rev 75 : — Project End Date: December 31,

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Sengenes, C. Arner, P. Interestingly, we further noticed in cohort 2 a significant association between adipose GC-A expression and de novo lipogenesis, a major pathway for glucose disposal, measured in isolated adipocytes Fig. The cell biology of fat expansion. Am J Clin Nutr.

Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. Adipocytes from transgenic mice had higher rates of glucose uptake in the absence or presence of increasing doses of insulin Fig. Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Morigny, P. This phenomenon increases the likelyhood of a number of diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and some kinds of cancer. Published 22 Mar Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature.

Katz A, Sahlin K, Broberg S Regulation of glucose utilization in human skeletal muscle during moderate dynamic exercise. Lipid uptake and mobilization have also been demonstrated to be more active in intraabdominal fat 5indicating a more active metabolic role of visceral than sc fat depot. So far, our data indicate that compromised insulin signaling does not interfere with the browning potential of white adipocytes and WAT. The lack of excess fat accumulation in mice expressing Gck also highlights the potential dissociation between glucose uptake and triacylglycerol storage in adipose tissue.

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