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Leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children – Relation of leptin to insulin resistance syndrome in children

In contrary Flore et al. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Lucas Cox
Saturday, November 30, 2019
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  • Tartaglia LA. Funding This study was partly supported by grants from the University Hospital of Guadeloupe.

  • Egger and Brett[ 6 ] noted weight gain in 44 of the children treated with VPA.

  • Among these cytokines, leptin and adiponectin, produced by adipose tissue, appear to play a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis [ 2 ].

  • Leptin levels decreased significantly only in the obese group whereas adiponectin concentrations increased significantly in the three groups. N Engl J Med : —

REVIEW article

Rambhojan, C. Google Scholar PubMed. One of the mechanisms through which MS and IR are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases seems to be found in the impairment of vascular function by influencing the component metabolic abnormalities that comprise MS.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 81 : — Accepted : 09 November In Japanese children, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with insulin resistance indices and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 Evidence that glucose metabolism regulates leptin secretion from cultured rat adipocytes. It would be expected that these high leptin concentrations would reduce energy intake in these children. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio more than 0.

Insulin resistance and the relationship of a dyslipidemia to coronary heart disease. Effects leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children gender, body composition and menopause on plasma concentrations of oebsity J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81 : — Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. Leptin and adiponectin show opposite effects on inflammation and insulin resistance. Adipose tissue appears very poor in the subcutaneous areas of the abdomen and thorax and in the bone marrow, whereas it is normally represented in the orbits, mouth and tongue, palms and soles, scalp, perineum, and periarticular regions Whether this is responsible for differences in satiety in OW individuals merits additional investigation.

Hyperleptinemia: an early sign of juvenile obesity. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in transgenic anx expressing nuclear SREBP-1c in adipose tissue: model for congenital generalized lipodystrophy. The metabolic significance of leptin in humans: gender-based differences in relationship to adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and energy expenditure. Materials and methods Study design and sampling method The Taipei Children Heart Study is an epidemiological survey of cardiovascular disease risk factors among school children in Taipei in

Subjects and Methods

Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Oxidative stress and metabolism at rest and during exercise in persons with Down syndrome. BMC Endocr Disord. In addition, children with DS may have a tendency to overeat, since the cerebral regions that are responsible for weight regulation may be damaged [ 56 ] moreover, there is incapacity to do long physical exercise in DS individuals because the effort can be quickly perceived as painful, difficult and without sense for them, which contributes to adoption of a sedentary lifestyle [ 7 ]. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

Moreover, although a direct association between breast-feeding and improved insulin sensitivity is unknown, breast-feeding should be promoted because it is involved in preventing obesity in children Relationship between high plasma leptin concentrations and metabolic syndrome in obese pre-pubertal children. Published : 04 October J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88 : —

Is there a relationship between leptin and insulin sensitivity independent of obesity? Background Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. Article Google Scholar Leptin: A potential biomarker for childhood obesity? Four types of CGL are known. Insulin resistance IR is a pathological condition strongly associated with obesity. Metabolism ; 46 : — 4.

INTRODUCTION

The data indicate that in both groups, leptin concentration declined during the physical training period, and that in group 1, leptin increased rather sharply upon cessation of the physical training. You can children search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Ghrelin levels increase before and decrease after meals, potentially playing a role in meal initiation and satiety 23. Low plasma ghrelin is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In the pediatric literature, the data for the influence of nutrient consumption and insulin resistance on plasma ghrelin is controversial.

Table 4 Multivariate regression coefficients for plasma leptin before chilldren after controlling for body mass index in different models predicting insulin resistance syndrome components Full size table. Article Contents Subjects and Methods. Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on leptin levels in humans. Sign In. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were highly prevalent in obese children highlighting their risk of metabolic complications in adulthood. Leptin: the tale of an obesity gene.

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The sensitivity of the assay reeistance 0. Categorical variable sex was presented as number and percent. Growth charts for Down's syndrome from birth to 18 years of age. Open in a separate window. Methods Thirty six Egyptian children with Down syndrome were enrolled in this study, divided according to their body mass index BMI into 23 obese and13 non obese.

Creatine kinase NAC activated oebsity values for children. Weight gain is a common adverse effect of sodium valproic acid VPA in children with epilepsy. Data were collected via self-structured questionnaires. In response, leptin decreases insulin secretion via direct action on leptin receptors in pancreatic B-cells while enhancing their actions and consequently improves whole body insulin sensitivity [ 27 ].

Body weight was determined to the nearest 0. Exercise-induced muscle damage resostance adaptation. Discussion The main findings of the present study are the association between hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose and obesity in obese Down children, that could make them at higher risk to develop IRS. Int J Obes. Although it is regarded as safe, use of VPA is associated with common side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and rarely hepatotoxicity.

Publication types

Exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but it had been postulated that VPA-related weight gain is associated with increased resistanc and leptin levels. The circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and of several metabolic markers of obesity and insulin resistance were determined by standard methods. This index measures leptin levels while controlling for the contribution of BMI [ 19 ].

  • Intravenous GTT IVGTT consists of measurement of basal insulinemia and afterwards injection of glucose into vein for 3 min, followed by the measurement of blood insulin levels at 1 and 3 min after the injection. It is inconsistent to a previous study.

  • The associations between plasma leptin level and the IRS components and score were still significant after adjusting for BMI in boys, but less so in girls. The association between fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in obese children with DS indicates early IR, suggesting a possible genetic basis.

  • Inwulin subjects in this study were a subsample of those involved in a larger study of physical training and body composition During the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp insulin is administered intravenously at a constant rate which increases and maintains systemic insulinemia, while a glucose intravenous infusion at variable rates occurs, in order to maintain glucose levels within the normal range.

  • Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of Type 2 diabetes in adult life.

  • Both hormones rise in direct proportion to adipose mass, they cross blood brain barrier and have receptors in the arcuate nucleus [ 12 ]. Nutrient intake and anthropometry in children and adolescents with Down syndrome - a preliminary study.

Ghrelin secretion in childhood is refractory to the inhibitory effect of feeding. Therefore, abd the present study: 1 we evaluated the metabolic profile, including serum ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels, in schoolchildren classified as normal weight, overweight and obese and 2 we analyzed the potential changes in anthropometric and metabolic factors after a 1-year collaborative lifestyle intervention program. J Clin Endocirnol Metab 83 : — New predictors of the metabolic syndrome in children--role of adipocytokines.

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J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Int J Obesity. Keywords: diabetes; insulin resistance; leptin; obesity. A total of 90 children were included in this study which comprised of 45 cases and 45 age- and sex-matched controls. Nutrition assessment of the child with Down syndrome; pp. The mean age of patients in case and control group was 9.

Association between drug level and insulin level was analyzed by spearman correlation coefficient. Discussion The main findings of the present leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children are the association between hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose and obesity qnd obese Down children, that could make them at higher risk to develop IRS. The main findings of the present study are the association between hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose and obesity in obese Down children, that could make them at higher risk to develop IRS. Plasma thyrotropin bioactivity in Down syndrome children with subclinical hypothyroidism. Chi square test was used for comparison between groups.

Fasting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol in femaleschildre testosterone in males were obtained to confirm pubertal staging. Exclusion criteria included seizure disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular disease or pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in obtaining accurate dietary data 21these data were interpreted with caution. The average increase in leptin levels was 7. Indian Pediatr.

Background

Open in a separate window. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma leptin concentration with obesity and the components of insulin resistance syndrome IRS among school children in Taiwan. Nutrition assessment of the child with Down syndrome; pp. Study subjects Forty-five consecutive patients aged 2—16 years were enrolled in the study group. The study was small in size, single center, cross sectional comparative study.

MAE and HA helped performing laboratory studies. Hypothyroidism and nemaline myopathy in an adult. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty. Their age ranged from 2. Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. Considering leptin and leptin-R, a higher median value of leptin in OD children was observed in this study, however, no significant difference in leptin and leptin -R were observed between OD versus OND, indicating an increase in median leptin values, a marker of leptin resistance in obese children irrespective to the cause of obesity. CK is considered the primary marker for muscle breakdown, in response to exercise, a portion of the population has exaggerated increases in CK [ 3132 ].

Associated myopathy either endocrine [ 35 ] hypothyroid related myopathy or infectious secondary to viral infection obeskty 36 ], strenuous physical activity [ 32 ] may be the underlying causes for these mildly elevated CK values and nad weakness could be added to the hypotonia which is a part of genetic predisposition of the disease. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between variables within each group of patients. Insulin resistance and obesity in childhood. Res Dev Disabil. The precise mechanism underlying VPA-associated weight gain still remains unclear, and further well-controlled studies are required to establish this side effect and its long-term complication. Associated myopathy evidenced by mildly elevated CK levels could be an added factor for obesity in such group of patients. More recently, a study carried out in Wistar strain female rat shows that treatment with VPA disrupts hypothalamic axis at the level of GnRH pulse generator.

Insulin antibody determination: theoretical and practical considerations. While for waist circumference, no internationally accepted cut points for either the leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children of obesity or presence of increased metabolic risk in children as in adult [ 25 ], furthermore, no data on population with DS can be found on this regard [ 40 ]. Patients having chronic conditions affecting growth or energy balance and children who already were taking thyroxine, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs were excluded. Obesity and endocrine disorders in women taking valproate for epilepsy.

Limitations The study was small in size, single center, cross sectional comparative study. Forty-five children of patient siblings served as healthy controls. Abstract Objective: Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived product of the obesity OB gene, is an important regulator of energy metabolism and may be associated with the occurrence of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans. A total of 90 children were included in this study which comprised of 45 cases and 45 age- and sex-matched controls. J Pediatr.

The mean absolute suppression in ghrelin in NW children was Therefore, its great advantage is that it requires a single blood sample. Proinflammatory cytokines and knsulin are increased in serum of prepubertal obese children. This difference might reflect the higher ratio of subcutaneous to visceral fat in women than in men since serum leptin is strongly related to subcutaneous fat mass [ 21 ]. The updated of the HOMA model considers the variations in hepatic and peripheral glucose resistance 5.

Background

Also there is elevation of leptin and leptin-R median values in both OD and NOD groups with normal thyroid profile in down children. Figure 1. Sodium valproate VPA is an extensively used broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug.

Study protocol At baseline, anthropometric and biochemical measurements were carried out in all children and, children and accompanying parents fulfilled questionnaires on lifestyle. J Biol Chem. These measurements were made concomitantly for the samples collected at baseline and at one year end of the study. They were thawed only at the time of the ghrelin assay. The next research question concerned identifying the correlates of individual differences in leptin concentration changes from before to after the 4-mo physical training period.

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Conflict of Interest: None declared. During the last decades several studies have defined several and well-characterized risk factors for IR including ethnicity, puberty, adipose tissue variant depots, polycystic ovary syndrome PCOSgene variants, family history of Diabetes or gestational diabetes, and fetal growth pattern during pregnancy. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and brachial artery vasodilator function in framingham offspring participants without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, leptin may be a useful independent marker of insulin resistance syndrome among school-aged children. Fasting ghrelin levels were significantly lower in OW vs NW youth and were mainly influenced by insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Table 4 presents changes in clinical and metabolic parameters at one year of follow-up.

These results are interesting since increase of insulin levels, HOMA-IR and leptin levels would be expected after one year with increasing age or puberty. Clin Pharmacokinet. View leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children publications. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. They were eligible if they were i aged between 11 and 15 years, ii affiliated to a social security scheme and iii in good health conditions. Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: The ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia.

Exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but it had been postulated that VPA-related weight gain ovesity associated with increased insulin and leptin levels. All were living within their families and were of same socioeconomic class, they were not assigned for special diet regimen. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

  • Does adult-onset diabetes mellitus begin in childhood?

  • The mean BMI of the cases and control group was

  • Moreover, energy restriction leads to lowered leptin concentrations 8presumably stimulating appetite. All statistical analyses were performed with SAS version 6.

  • SY conducted and draft the study, participated in its design and coordination and shared in clinical diagnosis and recruiting of patients. Br J Nutr.

  • Clinical guide to laboratory tests. Insulin resistance in epileptic girls who gain weight after therapy with valproic acid.

  • Google Scholar.

The insulin resistance obesity pbesity were the average of two readings left and right arms. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Serum leptin in children with obesity: Relationship to gender and development Pediatrics 98 : — Sex 5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in overweight adolescents. Fasting ghrelin levels were significantly lower in OW vs NW youth and were mainly influenced by insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Hyperinsulinemic — euglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity in vivoin type 2 diabetes.

Exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but it insulin obesity been postulated that VPA-related weight gain is associated with increased insulin and leptin levels. Conclusions: Insulin resistance syndrome in childhood, characterized by high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia, may be an early marker of cardiovascular risk. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. We found the same inverse relationship between the combined presence of obesity and insulin resistance and the methylation frequency of the CpG site located at nt relative to the start site of the ADIPOQ promoter. Data were collected via self-structured questionnaires.

Introduction

Int J Obes. Blood samples for serum insulin, leptin, serum glucose, and VPA drug concentration were obtained after overnight fasting. Although leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children production is positively correlated with the percentage of body fat, it is postulated that obese individuals, with hyperleptinemia, have some degree of leptin resistance [ 10 ]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible changes in insulin and leptin levels during VPA therapy and their association with obesity. The aim of the work The current study was designed to clarify differences in some obesity- related hormones in a group of prepubertal Down syndrome children.

The associations between plasma leptin level and rezistance IRS components and score were still significant after adjusting for BMI in boys, but less so in girls. Influenza myocarditis leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children myositis: case presentation and review of the literature. Several mechanisms of VPA-induced obesity have been suggested such as increased appetite, facultative thermogenesis, and elevated insulin and leptin levels. Hypothyroidism and nemaline myopathy in an adult. External link. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Insulin and Leptin in the pathogenesis of weight gain caused by VPA.

Dissociation of serum leptin concentration and body fat content during long term dietary intervention in obese individuals. Diab Obes Metabo. Targeting adipose tissue inflammation to treat the underlying basis of the metabolic complications of obesity. Thematic review series: Adipocyte Biology. Materials and methods Study design and sampling method The Taipei Children Heart Study is an epidemiological survey of cardiovascular disease risk factors among school children in Taipei in

Patients having chronic conditions affecting growth or energy balance and children who already were taking thyroxine, corticosteroids leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children immunosuppressive drugs were excluded. SY conducted and draft the study, participated in its design and coordination and shared in clinical diagnosis and recruiting of patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. It was suggested previously in small size study, 15 cases, including one prepubertal child with DS that increased HOMA-IR and high rate of glucose production indicated presence of peripheral and hepatic IR in adolescent with DS [ 22 ].

Eur J Clin Nutr. Overweight in Guadeloupe is a public health matter affecting children and adults. J Int Med. However, rare leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children serious side effects have been observed with all the available medications, therefore they should be used in selected cases. Table 1 Characteristics of school-children 11 to 15 years according to weight status at baseline Full size table. The subjects in this study were a subsample of those involved in a larger study of physical training and body composition Chu, NF.

They hypothesized that thyroid gland in children with DS needs an elevated TSH pressure to produce sufficient hormones [ 4 ]. Also there is elevation of leptin and leptin-R median values in both OD and NOD groups with normal thyroid profile in down children. Conclusion As per the results of this study, obesity was associated with increase serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Thyroid dysfunction in Down syndrome. Corresponding author.

Infrequent side effects observed in clinical trials are lactic acidosis, especially in case of overdose, and vitamin B12 leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children, requiring monitoring, and when necessary adequately supplementing this vitamin when necessary. Issue Date : 01 October Insulin resistance and the relationship of a dyslipidemia to coronary heart disease. Genetic lipodystrophies listed according to their possible inheritance patterns. An increased degree of IR is common in children and adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity 3. In non-diabetic obese adults it reduces food intake, causing weight loss and reduction of fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and insulin concentrations.

Publication types

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. Braz J Med Biol Res. The school usually provided three hours per week of physical education, supervised by physical education teachers.

Break point of serum creatine kinase release after endurance exercise. Substances Insulin Leptin Lipids. This study was of cross-section design; therefore, opportunity to know cause-effect relationship between weight gain and leptin levels is not possible. Dey S, editor. A possible interface of inflammation and metabolism in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. Conclusion As per the results of this study, obesity was associated with increase serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Intellectual Disability Res J.

Show results from All journals This journal. Obes Res. Am J Physiol ; : E — 6. William Cannady. In this study population without significant differences between groups in age, sex and Tanner stage distributions, we observed after cbildren 1-year lifestyle intervention, a reducing in BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and improvements in most of the metabolic parameters with greater benefits in the obese group. We measured serum total cholesterol using an esterase oxidase method, 35 triglycerides TG using an enzymatic procedure, 36 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-C by an enzymatic method with magnesium precipitation 37 using the Synchron CX5 analyzer Beckman Instrument, Palo Alto, CA. Plasma leptin concentrations: gender differences and associations with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease Diabetologia 40 : —

Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents: dependence on tesistance mass index, body fat mass, gender, pubertal stage, and testosterone J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82 : — But, other factors besides adiposity, such as sex steroids, might play a role in this gender difference [ 21 ]. Effects of a 1-year exercise and lifestyle intervention on irisin, adipokines, and inflammatory markers in obese children. We measured serum total cholesterol using an esterase oxidase method, 35 triglycerides TG using an enzymatic procedure, 36 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-C by an enzymatic method with magnesium precipitation 37 using the Synchron CX5 analyzer Beckman Instrument, Palo Alto, CA. Metrics details.

Insulin resistance syndrome in children and adolescent: clinical meaning and indication for action. Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version J of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. Adipocytes secrete leptin hormone, which acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and control body weight [ 10 ]. Associated myopathy evidenced by mildly elevated CK levels could be an added factor for obesity in such group of patients. OND: Obese non Down.

Fasting serum glucose was measured using glucose oxidase method. CK is considered the primary marker for muscle breakdown, in response to exercise, a portion of the population has exaggerated increases in CK [ 3132 ]. So Kruskal Wallis was used for comparison between four groups while, Mann Whitney was used for comparison between two groups. Similar results were reported in studies done by Verrotti et al. The clinical profile of children is depicted in Table 1. The association between fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in obese children with DS indicates early IR, suggesting a possible genetic basis. The use and misuse of the sensitive thyrotropin assays.

Leptin resistance is associated with extreme obesity and aggregates in families. Serum leptin levels were significantly raised in patients on VPA group in our study. Subgroup analysis was done among obese and normal patients who were on VPA as shown in Table 2.

The clinical symptoms and signs of both DS and hypothyroidism are overlapping to some extent e. The sensitivity of the assay was 0. The use and misuse of the sensitive thyrotropin assays. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All these behaviors indicate toward hypothalamic stimulation.

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Insulin-dependent modulation of plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations is less pronounced in type 2 diabetic patients. Leptin levels increased significantly by 1. The mechanism by which physical training influences leptin concentrations insulin obesity still open to speculation. For subjects who present extremely high blood triglycerides levels treatment with fibric acid derivatives are suggested, adding, in specific cases, low-dose statins in order to reduce non-HDL cholesterol. Validation of insulin sensitivity indices from oral glucose tolerance test parameters in obese children and adolescents. Pediatr Res. This study confirms previous observations of lower fasting ghrelin levels in OW children compared with lean children and the inverse relationship of fasting ghrelin levels and insulin sensitivity.

Methods: After multistage sampling of 85 junior high schools in Taipei, we randomly selected 1, children boys and girls aged y. Associated myopathy either endocrine [ 35 ] hypothyroid related myopathy or infectious secondary to viral infection [ 36 ], strenuous physical activity [ 32 ] may be the underlying causes for these mildly elevated CK values and muscle weakness could be added to the hypotonia which is a part of genetic predisposition of the disease. They hypothesized that thyroid gland in children with DS needs an elevated TSH pressure to produce sufficient hormones [ 4 ]. External link.

  • Insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment predicts incident symptomatic cardiovascular disease in caucasian subjects from the general population: the Bruneck study.

  • Abstract Objective: Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived product of the obesity OB gene, is an important regulator of energy metabolism and may be associated with the occurrence of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans.

  • In this cross-sectional study of school-aged children, we found that obesity and leptin were independently associated with the insulin resistance syndrome. Boden et al 26 showed that fasting leptin concentrations were positively correlated with fasting insulin and glucose concentrations in normal and obese subjects.

  • Tanner JM.

Dtsch Arztebl Int. J Clin Endoc Metab. Insulin resistance in adolescents with Down syndrome: a cross-sectional study. Serum leptin levels were significantly raised in patients on VPA group in our study. Pharmacol Rev. Clinical guide to laboratory tests. It was suggested previously in small size study, 15 cases, including one prepubertal child with DS that increased HOMA-IR and high rate of glucose production indicated presence of peripheral and hepatic IR in adolescent with DS [ 22 ].

Open in new tab Download slide. Open in new tab Download slide. Permissions Icon Permissions. Thus, in children, total mass may be a better indicator of change in energy stores than fat mass alone. Human congenital perilipin deficiency and insulin resistance.

Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes mellitus. Serum insulin, leptin, and neuropeptide Y levels in epileptic children treated with valproate. Creatine kinase NAC activated reference values for children.

Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. Support Center Support Center. Advance article alerts. Relation of weight and rate of increase in weight during childhood and adolescence to body size, blood pressure, fasting insulin, and lipids in young adults: the minneapolis childrens blood pressure study.

Although concerns about potential weight gain should be discussed with patients and their parents before therapy begins, these concerns should not preclude the use of VPA. This insulin obesity in contrary to previous data reported by Konings et al. Serum leptin levels were also studied in both the groups and it was elevated significantly in VPA group 7. While for waist circumference, no internationally accepted cut points for either the classification of obesity or presence of increased metabolic risk in children as in adult [ 25 ], furthermore, no data on population with DS can be found on this regard [ 40 ]. In a 1-year prospective study, Verrotti et al. Address for correspondence: Dr.

VPA is a fatty acid derivative, and this increase in free long chain fatty acid dysregulates the action of insulin insuulin promotes the onset of insulin resistance through the inhibition of various metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and the glucose oxidation. Tech publisher; Study design Observational cross-section study. The present study was conducted on two groups: group I, comprised 36 children having DS confirmed as trisomy 21 by chromosomal study their age ranged from 2 to 10 years. Leptin levels among prepubertal children with Down syndrome compared with their siblings.

In addition, chhildren regulates energy homeostasis through control of appetite and energy expenditure [ 11 ]. Exercise-induced muscle damage and adaptation. VPA is a fatty acid derivative, and this increase in free long chain fatty acid dysregulates the action of insulin and promotes the onset of insulin resistance through the inhibition of various metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and the glucose oxidation. We observed significantly higher FT 4 but not exceeding reference range 1—5 years: All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The medical history and examination were taken on outpatient basis in a fixed pro forma.

Box plot showing insulin and leptin levels in study individuals. Large leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children size, studying other causes of DS and further genetic study are needed to prove the genetic role in this tendency for obesity in DS. Study design Observational cross-section study. J Am Diet Assoc. Results: The mean BMI of the cases and control group was Discussion The main findings of the present study are the association between hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose and obesity in obese Down children, that could make them at higher risk to develop IRS.

Leptin resistance: A possible interface of inflammation and metabolism in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ producing several proteins including leptin and adiponectin with important biological activity and, the adipocyte plays a central role in the balance, or imbalance, of metabolic homeostasis [ 27 ]. Modulation of insulin activities by leptin Science : —

Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Children mean age of patients in case and control group was 9. Serum leptin levels were significantly raised in patients on VPA group in our study. IR in children with DS One of the characteristics of the person with trisomy 21 is the propensity for becoming obese [ 2 ]. Although concerns about potential weight gain should be discussed with patients and their parents before therapy begins, these concerns should not preclude the use of VPA. A study done by Pylvanen et al.

The first approach to IR in children consists of lifestyle interventions, including dietary modifications and increased physical activity. Moreover, other effects, as sympathetic overactivity, might exist. RMI should be performed to confirm the typical body fat distribution characterizing this syndrome. Written informed consent, to participate in this study, was obtained from all children and parents. Mol Cell Biol.

Of the insulim who participated to the study at baseline, 83 have accepted to undergo evaluation for clinical and biological parameters after one year 28 in normal weight, 28 in overweight, and 27 in obese children. The correlations showed that pretraining leptin concentration was negatively associated with change in leptin, indicating that higher pretraining concentrations were associated with larger decreases with physical training. Subjects with this subtype of CGL can present typical acromegalic features. In contrast, obtained data need to be interpreted carefully, especially in subjects with relevant alteration of glucose metabolism The next research question concerned identifying the correlates of individual differences in leptin concentration changes from before to after the 4-mo physical training period.

While for waist circumference, no internationally accepted cut insulin resistance obesity for either the classification of obesity or presence of increased metabolic risk in children as in adult [ 25 ], furthermore, no data on population with DS can be found on this regard [ 40 ]. Sodium VPA is associated with significant rise of BMI, hyperinsulinemia, raised insulin resistance, and increased leptin levels in children with epilepsy. External link. The study was small in size, single center, cross sectional comparative study. Physical activity patterns in children with and without Down syndrome. Their age ranged from 2.

ALSO READ: Child Obesity Abstract

Thus, in children, total mass may be leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children better indicator of change in energy stores than fat mass alone. Hyperleptinemia as a component of a metabolic syndrome of cardiovascular risk Artherioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18 : — These indexes, which are well-correlated with the M -values for stimulated insulin sensitivity derived from the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, are defined as: the whole body insulin sensitivity index WBISIconceived by Matsuda and De Fronzo 48and the insulin sensitivity index ISIintroduced by Soonthornpun et al. Furthermore, Mueller et al 28 showed that insulin-mediated leptin secretion was closely related to glucose uptake by isolated adipocytes, and that blocking glucose uptake or metabolism inhibited insulin-mediated leptin secretion. The whole body insulin sensitivity index was lower in the OW group 2.

  • New issue alert.

  • Leptin resistance.

  • Volovelsky O, Weiss R.

  • Hyperinsulinemic — euglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity in vivoin type 2 diabetes.

  • Dey S, editor. Furthermore it may help determine if an overweight child may have excess body fatness [ 39 ] and this group of children were not included in our study.

Intellectual Disability Res J. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. This was in contrary to previous data reported by Konings et al. They also validate the use of blood leukocytes and MS-PCR as a reliable and affordable methodology for the identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as molecular markers to predict and follow up the physiological changes associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

Oxford Academic. A relative natriuretic peptide deficiency, probably due to the IR found in obese individuals may represent one reason of the induction of hypertension by IR Furthermore, leptin may be a useful independent marker of insulin resistance syndrome among school-aged children. Hypoleptinemia in women athletes: absence of a diurnal rhythm with amenorrhea. Percent suppression in ghrelin was not significantly different between the NW and OW children

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