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Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity: Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Minority Group Members: A National Rural and Urban Study

Executive function and the frontal lobes: A meta-analytic review. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure caloric excess.

Lucas Cox
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
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  • Skinner and J. Obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the US health care system, 11 including direct and indirect costs.

  • Another lifestyle behavior, sleep deprivation has been found to correlate with cognitive functions [ 22 ] and affected school performance [ 16 ] of adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc.

  • The study was approved by the KPNC Institutional Review Board and a waiver of informed consent was obtained due to the nature of the study.

  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

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Mapping the trajectory of socioeconomic disparity in working memory: Parental and neighborhood factors. The present findings are unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity to previous findings [ 5354 ] identified that sleep parameters including habitual sleep efficiency and sleep quality were related to WM and inhibition. Few gender differences in dietary and lifestyle risks were observed within each age group. Nadeau, R. Ford et al.

In each trial, participants unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity a string of digits at the rate of one digit per second. The effect of poor quality sleep on brain fucntion and risk taking in adolescence. Lifestyle behaviors were also predictive of EF development during adolescence. Not only does EF serve as ground support for contemporaneous learning capabilities such as time management, it also promotes future learning capabilities and career success [ 6 ]. The current study has provided important information on the relationship between obesity and multiple lifestyle behaviors with EF of adolescents. Dev Rev. Padilla et al.

  • Woo, and A.

  • Conclusions The present findings suggested there was a relationship between obesity and impaired EF among adolescents.

  • Cheryl Green M.

  • Alvarez JA, Emory E.

Int J Obes. Thus, a significant relationship between PA and inhibition could not be observed. The addition of multiple lifestyle behaviors increased the overall fit of all three models. J Obes.

The proposed interaction between working memory and inhibition. One third of the adolescents The funder had no index menopause age in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Dev Sci. Discussion Evidence linking overweight and obesity to EF in adolescents has been accumulating [ 937 — 39 ]. Step tests of cardiorespiratory fitness suitable for mass testing. The present study demonstrated that larger household sizes predicted poorer WM and CF.

References

Methods and results: This cross-sectional study involved 62, students years. Published by Elsevier B. Nevertheless, a significant correlation was not found for weekend sleep durations. For instance, sleep patterns could be captured using polysomnographic recordings, while magnetic resonance imaging could be used to validate neurocognitive test results.

Only 6. The second, working memory WMis related to the ability to store, maintain, and manipulate information over a brief period of time. Over one-third Gordon, Amanda Howell, Cheryl E.

While these self-reported behaviors should be differentiated for counseling purposes, oobesity they represent unhealthy sedentary behaviors that could behaviors obesity to obesity risk. The relationship between obesity and multiple lifestyle behaviors with EF remains under-explored. Defining the genetic architecture of the predisposition to obesity: a challenging but not insurmountable task external icon. Genetics of obesity: what have we learned? Analyses pertaining to behavior and lifestyle risks were restricted to the

  • Nadeau, R.

  • Thirdly, the use of self-administered questionnaires may encounter problems of over or underreporting. They were then instructed to connect the numbers and alphabets as fast as possible.

  • J Eur Econ Assoc.

  • After adjusted for sociodemographic factors and BMI-for-age, differential predictors of inhibition and working memory were found. There were eligible adolescents and agreed to participate and completed the study questionnaire.

Moreover, lifestyle behaviors such as regular meal unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity, higher levels of physical activity and better sleep quality significantly predicted better EF over and above BMI-for-age and sociodemographic influences. There were 5 columns of 20 items, totaling items per trial. Watkins J. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

Dev Sci. Knowlden, and R. Alvarez JA, Emory E. What is the economic case for treating obesity?

Associated Data

A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Neuropsychol Rev. The PFS was used to classify the aerobic fitness levels of the participants. The elevations mentioned may promote an enthusiasm for learning and adapting. It has been suggested that people who exercise regularly and intensively tend to be more fit and have higher EF [ 64 ].

Predictors of EF domains Tables 3 — 5 summarized the results of the hierarchical regression unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity for each EF domain. It was found that adolescents who slept less than 9 hours tended to score better compared to those who had at least 9 hours of sleep during weekdays. It was acknowledged that longer durations of sleep may be related to higher EF [ 55 ]. The present study has also highlighted the need for interventions which target modifiable lifestyle behaviors in order to maximize cognitive benefits, especially during the critical period of brain development of adolescents.

Standardized tests may be preferable for enhanced sensitivity with comparison norms provided [ 66 ], which has age applied in the current study. Socio-demographic factors were treated as distal factors as they did not exert direct influences on EF. They were then instructed to connect the numbers and alphabets as fast as possible. In Part B, participants were given another piece of paper containing 13 numbers 1—13 and 12 alphabets A-Lwhich were intermixed. Dev Disabil Bull.

Consequences of Obesity

Substances Dietary Fiber. Third, since these data are cross-sectional, the results can only be interpreted as associations without inferring causality. It could be that adolescents who had poor EF were predisposed to unhealthy behaviors which progressively contributed to obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nevertheless, a few studies have simultaneously examined the relationship between multiple lifestyle behavior domains and EF in adolescents. It is important to note that regular obeisty intake finding was not conclusive. In subsequent visits, adolescent participants who returned the parent and adolescent consent forms were guided to answer a self-administered questionnaire regarding lifestyle behaviors on meal consumption patterns, physical activity, and sleep quality. It was acknowledged that longer durations of sleep may be related to higher EF [ 55 ].

Each lifewtyle was scored using a 5-point scale. To assist unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity and teens with objective reporting of dietary behaviors, specific examples were given for sugar-sweetened beverages e. The relationships between sex, age, geography and time in bed in adolescents: A meta-analysis of data from 23 countries. A total of children and adolescents aged 3—

Publications

If the studies are viewed collectively, previous beuaviors were often focused on a single domain of EF and their findings were inconsistent. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity present study did not find a significant association between aerobic fitness and inhibition, which replicated previous findings that similarly used SCWT as a measure of inhibition [ 62 ]. A proximal-distal approach was applied to determine the order to enter the study variables into the model.

Front Hum Neurosci. From a general perspective, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could plausibly contribute lifesstyle poor Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity in adolescents. The EF construct was quite complex; thus, it is suggested that multiple measures for each domain could be used to capture more information, rather than using a single measure. Br J Dev Psychol. Association of parent—child relationships and executive functioning in South Asian adolescents. The elevations mentioned may promote an enthusiasm for learning and adapting.

After adjusted for sociodemographic factors and BMI-for-age, differential predictors behaviors obesity inhibition and working memory were found. The present findings suggested there was a relationship between obesity and impaired EF among adolescents. Pakistan J Nutr. Discussion Evidence linking overweight and obesity to EF in adolescents has been accumulating [ 937 — 39 ]. Dev Rev. PLoS One.

Publication types

Selective alterations within executive functions in adolescents with excess weight. Physical inactivity, high screen time, low unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity intake, binge drinking and smoking were self-reported and combined to a ULB risk score, ranging from zero to five. The electronic medical record was used to ascertain clinic-based measurements of height by stadiometer and weight using a calibrated scale.

The participants were then instructed to draw lines between the circles in an ascending order. Obesity heavy burden of academic work has llifestyle in a drastic drop in the sleep duration of children and adolescents since the 20 th century. More related articles. Fahlman, N. The PFS was used to classify the aerobic fitness levels of the participants. Moreover, such behaviors persisted when the adolescents became adults [ 14 ]. Department of Health and Human Services.

We would also like to express our sincere appreciation to all enumerators who helped us throughout the data collection process. Academic Editor: Aron Weller. Behaviors can include obesity activity, inactivity, dietary patterns, medication use, and other exposures. Nonetheless, the three domains are dissociable when measured using different neurocognitive tests [ 5 ]. Fruit and vegetable intake also varied by gender among younger children. Grant Mellor, 6 and Joan C. The points for both parts were summed up to generate a total score.

The effect of poor quality sleep on brain fucntion and risk taking in adolescence. Pediatricians reviewed the responses during the visit to facilitate discussion and encourage follow-up of healthy behaviors. Fryar, and K.

  • Gordon, Amanda Howell, Cheryl E. From a general perspective, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could plausibly contribute to poor EF in adolescents.

  • Obesity diminishes synaptic markers, alters microglial morphology, and impairs cognitive function.

  • Martin, and B. The present study reported that better WM was predicted by a higher level of PA in adolescents.

  • Parent and adolescent consent forms as well as a set of questionnaire for parent participants requesting the provision of sociodemographic information were issued to be taken home by adolescent participants. The participants reported the number of days per week 0—7 days they had their main meals and snacks.

  • Knowlden, and R.

  • Regular meal intakes were positively correlated with WM and CF.

Self-administered questionnaires Parent participants completed a Malay-English bilingual questionnaire which contained a provision of sociodemographic characteristics such as monthly household incomes, household sizes, highest education levels, and number body mass index menopause age years of education attained. Psychiatry Res. Nonetheless, the extent that multiple lifestyle behaviors could have effects on EF after controlling the influence of obesity has remained largely unexplored. Aerobic capacity and cognitive control in elementary school-age children. Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis. The last item covered unusual activities that prevented adolescents from carrying out their regular activities.

Children with low socioeconomic status have also been found to have more obesogenic behaviors [ 2830 ]. The present study did not find a significant association between aerobic fitness and inhibition, which replicated previous findings that similarly used SCWT as a measure of inhibition [ 62 ]. Obes Rev. Aerobic fitness did not correlate with any EF domains.

Few gender differences in dietary and lifestyle risks were observed within each age group. Sinaiko et al. Increasing the utility of EF assessment of executive function in children. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature.

Sport Med Aust. Measuring physical fitness and cardiovascular efficiency unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity harvard step test approach under fuzzy environment. Anthropometric measurements All measurements were collected twice to obtain the mean values for data analysis. Previous studies have shown a consistent relationship between a high body mass index BMI and poor inhibition among adolescents [ 10 ].

Despite unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity, there is a lack of data available on the relationship between sleep deprivation and EF in adolescents in Asian countries. It could be that adolescents who had poor EF were predisposed to unhealthy behaviors which progressively contributed to obesity. Data used for the analyses presented in this paper. The second, working memory WMis related to the ability to store, maintain, and manipulate information over a brief period of time. Discussion Evidence linking overweight and obesity to EF in adolescents has been accumulating [ 937 — 39 ]. Executive function and the frontal lobes: A meta-analytic review.

Mission: Readiness Council for a Strong America; Sinaiko et al. Alberga, R. Defeyter MA, Russo R. Published online Apr Obesity is also associated with the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer.

Coleman et al. Obesity Research. The findings were in line with previous studies which showed that children and adolescents from higher income families performed better in the neurocognitive testing of EF [ 4041 ].

Behaviirs excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. For adults, dinner contributed to high proportion of calorie intakes per day [ 52 ]. The questionnaire had ten items, the first nine items covered activities during physical education classes, leisure time, recess, lunch times, evenings, and weekends, as well as the frequency of daily physical activities. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the participating schools and students for their willingness to participate in this study. Int J Obes. Table 4. The relation of aerobic fitness to stroop task performance in preadolescent children.

  • This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • Br J Sports Med. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file.

  • Carroll, B.

  • It has been suggested that people who exercise regularly and intensively tend to be more fit and have higher EF [ 64 ].

It was also found that aerobic fitness enhanced inhibition [ 21 ]. Br Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity Nutr. Body mass index and neuropsychological function in healthy children and adolescents. Maternal education, home environments, and the development of children and adolescents. Systematic review of health behavioral risks and cognitive health in older adults. Supporting information. Body weight 0.

Future studies may explore how lifestyle obesity can optimize the development of executive function in unjealthy as well as relieve the burden of obesity. Obes Rev. Series 11, Data from the National Health Surveyno. Moreover, previous studies have yet to take into account the intakes of lunch and dinner, which could be important contributors to daily nutritional intakes.

Publication types

The influence of obesityy quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. The participants were then instructed to draw lines between the circles in an ascending order. More recently, sedentary time has been recognized as another potentially emerging ULB related to obesity. It was plausible that the deteriorating effects of adiposity on CF were more likely to be detectable over a threshold and perhaps only in a large proportion of an obese sample of individuals [ 51 ]. The BMI-for-age followed in the second block and then all lifestyle behaviors meal intakes, sleep quality, physical activity and aerobic fitness were placed in the last block.

Monthly household income consistently appeared as a body mass index menopause age predictor of all three domains. Lifwstyle, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. Cultural influences on the bedtime behaviors of young children. Measuring general levels of physical activity: preliminary evidence for the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity.

  • After the BMI-for-age factor was controlled, meal intakes, physical activity, and sleep quality emerged as significant predictors of EF. Konty, M.

  • Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

  • Third, since these data are cross-sectional, the results can only be interpreted as associations without inferring causality.

  • A proximal-distal approach was applied to determine the order to enter unhealty study variables into the model. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • S1 File. Sleep Med Rev.

The objective measures may have strengthened the unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity links that were examined in the unheaalthy study. The eligible participants were provided with an information sheet. Monthly household income consistently appeared as a significant predictor of all three domains. Moreover, a neuroimaging study by Telzer et al. Socioeconomic status and executive function: developmental trajectories and mediation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci.

The summary activity score was calculated from the mean obesity of the nine items to classify adolescents into different levels of physical activity: low behaviorw. Influence of family socioeconomic status on IQ, language, memory and executive functions of Brazilian children. The present study has also highlighted the need for interventions which target modifiable lifestyle behaviors in order to maximize cognitive benefits, especially during the critical period of brain development of adolescents. Ford, Nancy P. Spadano-Gasbarro, C. Based on the formula provided in the test manual [ 24 ], the interference score for each participant was calculated from the raw scores, where the scores ranged between to Please review our privacy policy.

Household income emerged as a consistent predictor for all executive function domains. Thus, it is responsible for the achievement of purposeful, goal-directed behaviors [ 3 ]. Adm Sci Assoc Canada.

An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Dev Sci. The first, known as inhibition, concerns the ability to resist distraction and to maintain focus. The elevations mentioned may promote an enthusiasm for learning and adapting.

A review of the association between obesity and cognitive function across the lifespan: Implications for novel approaches to prevention and treatment. Supporting information. The EF is a cluster of cognitive processes that underlie planning, organizing, and regulation. Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Step tests of cardiorespiratory fitness suitable for mass testing.

Journal of Obesity

Most obesity, however, probably results from complex interactions among multiple genes and environmental factors that remain poorly understood multifactorial obesity. Sleep Med. Burch, A.

The participants reported the number of days per unhealthy lifestyle 0—7 days they had their main meals and snacks. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between obesity and several lifestyle behaviors of adolescents operationalized as meal consumption patterns, physical activity, fitness levels, and sleep quality with EF, taking account the influences of socio-demographic factors. Permission to conduct the study was also obtained from the Ministry of Education, Selangor Department of Education and from the authorities of the selected schools. Spear LP. In conclusion, an increased trend of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles among adolescents were found to be associated with poorer executive function.

The summary activity score was calculated from the mean score of the nine items to classify adolescents into different levels of physical activity: low 1. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity tests may be preferable for enhanced sensitivity with comparison norms provided [ 66 ], which has been applied in the current study. A developmental perspective on executive function. Percept Mot Skills. Predictors of EF domains Tables 3 — 5 summarized the results of the hierarchical regression models for each EF domain. Thus, a more uniform assessment method should be considered in future studies [ 12 ].

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The role of EF has also been attributed to negative health outcomes, in which EF deficits were associated with psychosocial problems such as aggression, externalizing and internalizing behaviors [ 7 ]. J Sports Sci. Sleep and memory in healthy children and adolescents—A critical review.

A global sleep quality score ranged 0 unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity 21 was generated from the sum of 7 component scores. It was clear that sociodemographic factors potentially influenced both obesity and EF. Inadequate sleep was defined per National Sleep Foundation Consensus Guidelines [ 36 ] which recommends against sleep less than 8 hours per day including naps for children aged 3—5 and less than 7 hours per day for children aged 6—17 years. The present study found that regular meal intakes throughout a day and especially dinner intakes were found to predict better WM and CF. Systematic review of health behavioral risks and cognitive health in older adults. Inhibition was assessed using the Stroop color-word test [ 24 ] which consisted of three trials: i word tasks participants read color names printed in black inkii color tasks participants read colors of Xs printed in green, red, or blueand iii word-color tasks participants named the color of the ink which the words were printed, ignoring the words that were printed.

ALSO READ: Obese Woman Wants To Become World S Fattest Cats

Disinhibited eating in obese unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Fruit and vegetable intake also varied by gender among younger children. The present findings suggested there was a relationship between obesity and impaired EF among adolescents. Most children were 6—11 InKPNC further implemented a population program entitled the Get Healthy Action Plan GHAPdesigned to assist pediatricians in the assessment and counseling of children and adolescents with obesity using a standardized office tool during routine well-child visits. Salimpoor VN, Desrocher M.

Nevertheless, selection of instruments should be careful and should be based on the age range of a study sample and an ability to separate various domains of EF. Nevertheless, a significant correlation was not found for weekend sleep durations. Adolescents could be classified as short sleepers i. Table 5.

Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness behxviors children and adolescents. Thus, the performance of inhibitory tasks was likely to depend on the interaction of both domains for resource sharing and the level of task demands on each domain [ 61 ]. The current study has provided important information on the relationship between obesity and multiple lifestyle behaviors with EF of adolescents. Extensive studies have reported that unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could potentially deteriorate academic [ 15 ] and cognitive performances, such as academic-related skills [ 16 ], and intelligence quotients IQ [ 17 ].

Nevertheless, the relationship between obesity and other domains of EF have unealthy under-examined and findings for such a relationship have been inconclusive [ 12 ]. Obesity diminishes synaptic markers, alters microglial morphology, and impairs cognitive function. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia. In Part B, participants were given another piece of paper containing 13 numbers 1—13 and 12 alphabets A-Lwhich were intermixed. The role of EF has also been attributed to negative health outcomes, in which EF deficits were associated with psychosocial problems such as aggression, externalizing and internalizing behaviors [ 7 ]. Comput Human Behav.

The proposed interaction between working memory and inhibition. Acknowledgments Obesity would behaviogs to thank the participating schools and students for their willingness to participate in this study. Not only does EF serve as ground support for contemporaneous learning capabilities such as time management, it also promotes future learning capabilities and career success [ 6 ]. Future studies may explore how lifestyle modifications can optimize the development of executive function in adolescents as well as relieve the burden of obesity. Br J Nutr. Numerous studies have found positive relationships between maternal or parental education with EF among younger children aged below 13 years [ 40 — 4146 ]. Step tests of cardiorespiratory fitness suitable for mass testing.

  • Maring, M. Mission: Readiness Council for a Strong America;

  • In fact, inhibition and WM unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity been consistently found as independent, yet interrelated domains of EF that shared limited brain resources to perform the tasks [ 461 ]. It was found that adolescents who slept less than 9 hours tended to score better compared to those who had at least 9 hours of sleep during weekdays.

  • Kaplan, and S. Standardized tests may be preferable for enhanced sensitivity with comparison norms provided [ 66 ], which has been applied in the current study.

  • It was found that even where there was an absence of degenerative effects of the aging process and other obesity co-morbidities, subtle brain alterations with lower EF levels were uncovered among obese adolescents [ 11 ].

  • As such, the GHAP well-child visit encounter provides an extremely large, diverse, and real-world clinical population of children with obesity in whom obesity severity, risk behaviors, weight status, and intervention can be further examined. Series 11, Data from the National Health Surveyno.

Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. The participants in this study were awarded one point for every correct repeated digit string and no points for recall errors. Clin Neuropsychol. The heavy burden of academic work has resulted in a drastic drop in the sleep duration of children and adolescents since the 20 th century. Plausibly, the task that was used to measure inhibition i. Aerobic fitness The step test was recommended as the more practical option for mass testing of aerobic fitness compared to the direct measure of VO 2 max which involved sophisticated laboratory procedures [ 34 ]. The cognitive benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle may not be restricted to adults.

Thirdly, the use of self-administered questionnaires may encounter problems of over or underreporting. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Reitan RM. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors obesity weight. Obes Rev. The relationships between socio-demographic factors, BMI-for-age, lifestyle behaviors, and EF were inspected using a Pearson product-moment correlation test. Body weight 0. A systematic review of sleep studies among children and adolescents suggested that optimal sleep duration for those aged 10 years and above was at least 9 hours sleep per day [ 32 ].

Associations between daily physical activity and executive functioning in primary school-aged children. After adjusted for sociodemographic factors and BMI-for-age, differential predictors of inhibition and working memory were found. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Lo, B. In other words, a lower score denoted a better performance. Eur J Cogn Psychol.

  • Flegal, R. Lawrence, J.

  • Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

  • While these self-reported behaviors should be differentiated for counseling purposes, collectively they represent unhealthy sedentary behaviors that could contribute to obesity risk.

  • Freedman, C. Mission: Readiness Council for a Strong America;

J Eur Econ Assoc. Malays J Nutr. Int J Obes. The benefits were brought about by permanent physiological changes in the brain, such as the formation and extension of new vessels and the release of neurotrophic factors that enhanced neural growth and survival.

Given the strong tracking effect of childhood obesity into adulthood [ 1 — 4 ] and the association of pediatric obesity with adverse health consequences [ 5 — unhealtyh ], unhealthy lifestyle behavioral factors, severity trends, and high-risk subgroups is important from both a public health and clinical perspective. BMC Public Health. In other words, a lower score denoted a better performance. There were 5 columns of 20 items, totaling items per trial. The last item covered unusual activities that prevented adolescents from carrying out their regular activities. The questionnaire had ten items, the first nine items covered activities during physical education classes, leisure time, recess, lunch times, evenings, and weekends, as well as the frequency of daily physical activities.

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