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Wistar rat brain weight: Brain weight differences associated with induced focal microgyria

Non-invasive brain MRI provides an excellent method for studies of rodent brain structure. Wild rats exhibit a significantly higher level of aggression towards other individuals of their species [ 7 , 8 ], and are more responsive to changes in their environment [ 2 , 9 — 11 ].

Lucas Cox
Saturday, March 21, 2020
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  • The differences in weight between different rat strains are well known and our weight records are in good agreement with those provided by professional animal suppliers [ 3637 ].

  • Effects of domestication on brain structure and behavior in mammals. On the other hand, numerous brain structures besides cerebral cortex were relatively bigger in laboratory strains than in WWCPS rats Fig 6Table 1.

  • Further, animals with induced microgyria showed poorer performance in discrimination learning and took longer paths to the target in the Morris Water Maze than sham littermates[ 22 ].

  • Hum Evol.

MeSH terms

Current biology: CB. Such a notable reduction was not observed in albino WI rats. Structures labelling.

The extent of brain-wide changes induced by the relatively wustar freezing lesion that anti obesity day 2011 mustang microgyria is, however, unknown. Figure 3. How domestication modulates play behavior: a comparative analysis between wild rats and a laboratory strain of Rattus norvegicus. Laboratory rats had also noticeably smaller parietal and retrosplenial cortex, structures which has connection with motor cortex and play a role in navigational motor planning. However, relative F values suggested that while Environment main effects were equivalent between cortex and non-cortex, Lesion effects were more pronounced in the neocortex.

These areas are essential for the survival of animals in the wild and were significantly decreased in laboratory rats. Frontiers in neuroinformatics. Rosen GD, Herman AE, Galaburda AM: Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. Also, the retrosplenial and temporal association cortex which border and have functional connections with the visual cortex presented a smaller volume in WI then in pigmented rats. A The olfactory bulbs, B olfactory nuclei, C amygdala and D hippocampus.

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Compared with traditional histology, in vivo MRI studies make it possible to avoid artifacts generated by procedure of removing brain from the scull and by multistep histological processing. Evolution of Nervous Systems. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Neuroscience letters.

Further, wiatar i. References 1. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted brain weight, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. J Comp Psychol. Comparing brain structures in wild-captive rats with laboratory rats we detected, a reduction in the brain volume to body weight ratio in WI and noticed that the changes in proportions of particular brain structures do not appear homogeneously but rather in a mosaic fashion. Relative total volume of the hippocampus was significantly bigger in both laboratory strains compared to WWCPS.

Fig 5. We analyzed 50 segmented brain regions based on the MRI Schwarz atlas and extensively studied the structures which could be coupled with biobehavioral profile changes during the domestication process such as lower aggression, socio-positive brain weight behavior and cognitive abilities, as well as less hormonal stress responses [ 44 ]. Laboratory rats had also noticeably smaller parietal and retrosplenial cortex, structures which has connection with motor cortex and play a role in navigational motor planning. Brain size usually increases with body size, but most domesticated animals often have a greater body weight and relatively smaller brain volume than their wild counterparts [ 38 — 41 ]. An integrated visualization system for surgical planning and guidance using image fusion and an open MR. In the images, using digital MRI Schwarz rat brain atlas, we segmented and quantitated 50 brain regions, and looked for differences between the strains. The present data shows that selective breeding of laboratory rats markedly affected brain morphology, the neocortex being most significantly altered.

Background

Changes in structures possibly weiight to emotions and stress reaction Artificial selection during domestication leads to consolidation of traits that are more advantageous and desirable for humans. Brain weight differences associated with induced focal microgyria. Kruska DC. On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization. Nature neuroscience.

Kruska DC. Lockhard RB. It is important to note that the enrichment procedure of this study differed significantly from those used previously[ 24 ] in that it began prenatally. An ANOVA was performed for non-neocortical volume computed by total brain volume minus neocortical volumeto assess whether Lesion effects and Environmental effects were specific to cortex, or distributed through non-neocortical areas as well. Eur J Neurosci.

Behav Genet. Importantly, abnormalities in the functioning brrain the visual system are manifested already in very young animals eg. Dvorak K, Feit J, Jurankova Z: Experimentally induced focal microgyria and status verrucosus deformis in rats — pathogenesis and interrelation. Quantitative mouse brain phenotyping based on single and multispectral MR protocols. Behav Neurosci.

Phenotypes – Organ Weights

Conclusions: In this manner, the application of the rat brain atlases could be extended and the results would be of great help in stereotaxic procedures. Collective results have critical implications for the profound re-organizational effects of relatively small focal injuries early in development, specifically to affect distributed systems throughout the brain and in particular the cerebral cortex. Victor Denenberg for statistical advice and discussion and Stefany Palmieri, Phyllis Itoka, and Sidhardha Kamaraju for technical assistance.

La Torre JC: Effect of differential environmental enrichment on brain weight and on acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase activities in mice. Brain analysis see below occurred on P Volumes were estimated using Stereo Investigator Microbrightfield Corp. These structures are involved in the cognitive processing of reward, aggression and sexual behavior in rats.

High resolution T2-weighted images were intensity corrected and automatically segmented for white matter, grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Toxicol Pathol Selection for tameness, a key behavioral trait of domestication, increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in foxes. Tanas L, Pisula W. Sonibare M. Personal Individ Differ. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy.

Average and Range Weights

J Comp Psychol. Bain Behav. Particularly some cortical regions involve in the cognitive and memory functions including visuospatial orientation and planning the future such as the retrosplenial, temporal associations and parietal association cortex were decreased considerably. The captured albino mutant individuals of the wild Rattus norvegicus were one of the earliest type of rats domesticated for scientific purpose.

After cortex segmentation weight were a reduction in almost all of cortical structures volume in albino Wistar rats and in few in BN. This developmental injury triggers a pervasive neural reorganization, which is evident at the electrophysiological, behavioral, and anatomical levels. Studies on albino rats have provided substantial part of knowledge about the functioning of the nervous system. Study Groups A summary of the three study groups is presented in Table 4. Life Sci.

Physiological differences in water content between the several brain regions ranged from Back-transformation to original weight allowed identification of brain structures in the original images and calculation of volumes of the pre-defined structures. The percentage volume differences VD between the manual and automated segmentation were 4. One of the reason could have been related to the pleiotropic association of melanin-based lighter coloration to certain attributes of social behavior such as tameness [ 1213 ]. Cho J, Sharp PE.

Publication types

Genetic dissection of the mouse brain using high-field magnetic resonance microscopy. Results of the automatic segmentation of the selected brain structures—non-normalized raw data. In: Hayes W.

Genetic dissection of the mouse brain using high-field magnetic resonance microscopy. Braon volumes were scaled to body mass, whereas volumes of brain structures were normalized to individual brain volumes. Pathways to psychiatric care in Ibadan, Nigeria. Differential effects of environmental enrichment on the open-field behavior of wild and domestic Norway rats. Antimicrobial evaluation of plants commonly used in the management of psychosis opportunistic infections. Springhouse Corporation, Pennsylvania, p.

Browse Subject Areas? As can be seen in Figure 3Awistar rat brain weight animals had weightt brain volumes than their sham counterparts across all conditions. Quantitative mouse brain phenotyping based on single and multispectral MR protocols. Both traditional and electronic atlases are used for animals of different strains on the condition that they represent the same maturation state and do not display severe anatomical abnormalities [ 2129 ]. J Comp Neurol. Volumetric measurements.

Focal neocortical malformations induced by freeze injury to the developing cortical plate exemplify this fact. These structures weight involved in the cognitive processing of reward, aggression and sexual behavior in rats. These factors indicate that subsequent systematic alterations e. Boice R. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Results Histological analysis confirmed the presence of bilateral microgyria in all subjects exposed to the P1 freezing lesion treatment Figure 1. In next step the images were transformed to brain template which allowed applying labels ie.

Publication types

Furthermore, phylogenetically older structures such brain weight hippocampus archeocortex which play brainn crucial role in learning and memory processes especially spatial memory in rodents, were changed but not as much as the phylogenetically younger cortex structure. Internet J Altern Med The parent pairs were obtained in from Charles River Laboratories, Germany. Manual segmentation was performed in 3D Slicer software version 4.

Figure wweight Effect of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria on wistar rat brain weight weight of young albino Wistar rats Click here to view. Even adjacent cortical regions showed differences in the amount of brain water of up to 3. In the images, using digital MRI Schwarz rat brain atlas, we segmented and quantitated 50 brain regions, and looked for differences between the strains. Fully automated MR image analysis and quantitation of structure volumes provided fast, all-encompassing and non-invasive quantitative evaluation of brain structures. Brain templates and atlases.

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Using tissue priors, each subject image was segmented using SPM8 into grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. A contribution to size changes of CNS structures due to domestication. To improve accuracy of structure delineation we transformed the Schwarz template image and the labelled image into tissue probability maps space associated with the template image provided by Valdes-Hernandez et al. A three-dimensional MRI atlas of the mouse brain with estimates of the average and variability. Generally, the water content of the grey matter was higher than that of the white matter and increased from the frontal to the occipital and from the parietal to the basal cortex.

  • The olfactory bulbs were segmented manually and the other structures were segmented automatically.

  • ILAR journal. Fig 5.

  • Generally, the amygdala has definitely increased in size during evolution process [ 54 ].

  • In domesticated animals, the components of the olfactory system in particular the olfactory bulbs are usually reduced. Numerous studies demonstrate successful registration of images obtained from different rat strains to this template [ 3435 ].

Akpanabiatu M. Variation in visual acuity within pigmented, and between pigmented and albino rat strains. Free-operant comparisons of wild and domestic Norway rats. Visual memory task for rats reveals an essential role for hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. Structures labelling.

For example, it was shown that destruction of a part of the retrosplenial cortex resulted in worse spatial movement parameters such as running speed in rats [ 49 ]. J Exp Clin Wisstar [serial online] [cited Jul 30]; In particular, the Paxinos atlas [ 29 ] was created for the Wistar rat but is widely used also for other rat strains. Selective breeding for laboratory purposes has led to remarkable differences between laboratory rats and their wild ancestors in the morphology, physiology and behavior. Brain templates and atlases. Further differences between laboratory and wild rats, which have been characterized more recently, include differences in complex behaviors such as burrowing, swimming [ 2 ] and play-fighting [ 34 ].

J Neurosci Methods. The Effects of Domestication on Brain Size. Pups were randomly designated to receive bilateral freezing lesions or sham surgery, balancing treatment within litters. The principal auditory relay, the medial geniculate nucleus was even slightly enhanced in WI. It cannot be excluded some of the structures are segmented with poorer accuracy, in particular the smaller structures [ 26 ].

Also, the wistar rat brain and temporal association cortex which border and have functional connections with the visual cortex presented a smaller volume in WI then in pigmented rats. Scaled normalized volumes were weigt by dividing structure volume by whole brain volume. ASC: Astrocytes Click here to view. An integrated visualization system for surgical planning and guidance using image fusion and an open MR. As recognized by Lockhard [ 1 ], laboratorization has resulted in the elimination of numerous traits maladaptive in a laboratory environment, such as savageness and the fight and flight response, and active selection of genetic background of desired traits such as amiability, acceptance of strangers, larger litters, long reproductive periods, tolerance to loud noises, etc.

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Drury R. Sonibare M. The segmentation accuracy was validated by comparing the results weiyht automated wistar rat brain weight with the results of manual segmentation of the hippocampus. Domestication-related changes in brain size The rats from all populations were in the same maturation state, ie. However, a recent study on spatial learning with use the Morris water maze shows that some domestic animals such as Guinea pig or Mongolian gerbil [ 4455 ] have equivalent or even better learning performance than their wild ancestors. Trop Med Int Health

History of psychology. At weaning P21pups were art by sex and treatment in the normal housing area. Moreover, the accuracy of segmentation did not seem to depend on the group of the animals tested. Many laboratory strains of this species are albinotic and develop various ocular pathologies resulting in impaired visual acuity [ 45 ] as well as structural abnormalities in the connections of the occipital cortex [ 16 ]. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.

Average and Range of Weights (g) of Rats held at the ARC*

Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Microgyric lesions were confirmed and location assessed. Structures labelling. Discussion In the present study we used in vivo MRI technique employing a magnetic field of 7 Tesla to collect images of brains of young adult wild-captive rats and young adult rats of two laboratory strains, albino Wistar and pigmented Brown Norway. Numerous studies demonstrate successful registration of images obtained from different rat strains to this template [ 3435 ].

Supporting information. Wistar rat brain weight cognitive evolution in captive foxes is a correlated by-product of experimental domestication. In the present study we used in vivo MRI technique employing a magnetic field of 7 Tesla to collect images of brains of young adult wild-captive rats and young adult rats of two laboratory strains, albino Wistar and pigmented Brown Norway. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging: JMRI. Low power photomicrograph of a Wistar rat brain with bilateral microgyria arrows. Separate ANOVA's were performed on brain weight residuals for each study group after regressing against body weight see Tables 1 and 2using either a linear regression Studies 1 and 3or a logarithmic regression Study 2.

Using tissue priors, each subject image was segmented using SPM8 into grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Free-operant comparisons of wild and domestic Norway rats. Gill S. This analysis showed small differences between the results of manual and automatic segmentation.

Rosen GD, Herman AE, Galaburda AM: Sex differences in the effects of early wistar rat brain weight injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. Comparative quantitative investigations on brains of wild cavies Cavia aperea and guinea pigs Cavia aperea f. Neuroscience letters. Epilepsy Res. Focal damage to the developing brain can have widespread consequences for structures and regions that project to or receive direct or even indirect projections from the damaged area [ 1 — 3 ]. Search all BMC articles Search. Heiduschka P, Schraermeyer U.

Greener J Med Sci These areas are essential for the survival of animals in the wild and were significantly decreased in laboratory rats. Image registration. Normalized volumes of the brain structures expressed as percentage of the brain volume allowed us to compare differences in the brain proportions.

Development of MRI-based atlases of non-human brains. The analysis of the image data was performed in the following steps Fig 1 : Intensity correction. While, Wistar are the one of the oldest albinotic laboratory outbred stock, BN is an inbred strain that received a significant genetic contribution from wild rat [ 42 ]. The relative volume of amygdala was also significantly bigger in both laboratory strains when compared to wild rats: BN 3. Moreover, the accuracy of segmentation did not seem to depend on the group of the animals tested. Correspondence to Glenn D Rosen.

ANY performed the anatomic measures and collaborated on the statistical analysis. Microgyric anomalies are also associated with connectional alterations [ 10 — 12 ], affecting both thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity. Behavioral neuroscience. Ann Neurol.

The control Group 1 received 0. Professional's Handbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria apocynaceae on the fetal heart.

How domestication modulates wistar rat brain weight behavior: a comparative analysis brian wild rats and a laboratory strain of Rattus norvegicus. The olfactory bulbs were segmented manually and the other structures were segmented automatically. The coefficient of error for these measures ranged from 0. Volume difference VD was calculated as follows:. Boice R. London: Elsevier;

Effects of domestication on brain structure and behavior in mammals. The motor cortex which is the wisatr of the cerebral wistar rat brain weight involved in the planning, commanding and controlling voluntary movements were significantly smaller in laboratory rats when compared to wild rats. This is unlikely because no tissue was removed. Such a notable reduction was not observed in albino WI rats.

Namely, animals are wistar rat brain weight which present wistra aggression toward people and other animals, more sociable behavior, high fecundity, and diminished stress responsiveness caused by crowding in cages and restriction of movement. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Differential effects of environmental enrichment on the open-field behavior of wild and domestic Norway rats. Wistar WU Rat Technical resources [10—10—]. Notably, Wistar stock is characterized by extremely docile behavior and high fertility. Inbred animals and tissue transplantation immunity, with an index of some inbred strains other than mice.

Wistar rat brain weight PPT. A The olfactory eeight, B olfactory nuclei, C amygdala and D hippocampus. Recent Prog Med Plants Abstract Background: Stereotaxic procedures in rats are frequently used in neurological research. These structures are involved in the regulation of various functions including memory and emotional response such as aggression, fear or motivation.

Artificial selection during domestication leads to rwt of traits that are more advantageous and desirable for brain weight. Fully automated MR image analysis and quantitation of structure volumes provided fast, all-encompassing and non-invasive quantitative evaluation of brain structures. Full size table. Conclusions This finding supports previous work suggesting that substantial reorganization of the brain is triggered by the induction of bilateral freezing damage.

In conclusion, the study shows great differences in normal wistar rat brain weight content between the several brain areas in gat to an only slight increase of water content due to the development of cytotoxic brain edema. After cortex segmentation there were a reduction in almost all of cortical structures volume in albino Wistar rats and in few in BN. Laboratory rats learn quicker than wild rats but they also are faster in forgetting the learned reaction [ 56 ]. Related articles Body weight brain weight cerebellum Purkinje cells Rauvolfia vomitoria. Germline Chd8 haploinsufficiency alters brain development in mouse.

Study Groups A summary of the three study groups is presented in Table 4. Download PDF. Dorsal hippocampus, which in rodents is involved mainly in spatial memory [ 51 ], was slightly bigger. References 1. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

  • Significantly higher relative volume in amygdala was noted in both laboratory strains. S1 Fig.

  • The most pronounced differences were observed in the accumbens shell which is strongly connected to amygdala.

  • Selective breeding for laboratory purposes has led to remarkable differences between laboratory rats and their wild ancestors in the morphology, physiology and behavior.

  • S1 Table. The areas of systematic series of sections through the entire region of interest were measured using point counting, and the volumes estimated using Cavalieri's rule.

Turk J Biol Our study confirms that changes in visual acuity brin albinotic Wistar rats lead to structural changes in the vision-related areas. Figure 2: Effect of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria on brain weight of young albino Wistar rats Click here to view. Fetrow C. To detect possible differences in the brain proportions within the animal groups, we have presented volumes of the segmented brain structures as a percentage of total brain volume. Similarly, decrease in total cortex and areas involved in processing of the sensory information and motor system was found both in early domesticated mammals eg.

Significances of differences between groups were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by U Mann-Whitney test. Price EO. Conclusion: The ethanolic root bark extract of R. Prog Brain Res Principles and Methods of Toxicology.

Figure 1: Effect of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria on body weight of young albino Wistar rats Click here brani view. Internet J Altern Med Moreover, MR imaging performed in vivo allowed assessment of the size of brain structures in their natural environment and conditions, thus avoiding post-mortem changes in shape and volume caused by the preparation or fixation of the tissue [ 2631 ]. Moreover, the accuracy of segmentation did not seem to depend on the group of the animals tested.

Users Online: Brain weight brain MRI provides an excellent method wfight studies of rodent brain structure. The motor cortex which is the area of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, commanding and controlling voluntary movements were significantly smaller in laboratory rats when compared to wild rats. Stephan H, Andy OJ.

High resolution T2-weighted images witsar intensity corrected and automatically segmented for white matter, grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Download: PPT. Conclusions: In this manner, the application of the rat brain atlases could be extended and the results would be of great help in stereotaxic procedures. Furthermore, phylogenetically older structures such the hippocampus archeocortex which play a crucial role in learning and memory processes especially spatial memory in rodents, were changed but not as much as the phylogenetically younger cortex structure. Genetic dissection of the mouse brain using high-field magnetic resonance microscopy.

Physiological monitoring, including respiration rate and wistar rat brain weight temperature, was performed throughout the imaging sessions. In the brzin environment wild animals have to escape from predators, explore large areas to find food, shelter or mates. Supporting information. Importantly, abnormalities in the functioning of the visual system are manifested already in very young animals eg.

A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. As brain size in animals generally increases with body weight, it could be assumed that body weight and brain size are tightly related. Eng L. High resolution T2-weighted images were intensity corrected and automatically segmented for white matter, grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Traditional medicine strategy. In particular we observed significant differences in some functionally related parts of cortex, especially in the area responsible for processing sensory information visual, retrosplenial, parietal and auditory cortex or controlling movements motor cortex.

  • Brain, behavior and evolution. For the segmentation of individual brain image structures we employed the in vivo rat atlas created from images of the brains of 97 male Sprague-Dawley rats and published by Schwarz et al.

  • These findings are similar to those on rats, in which the laboratory rats might also outperform the wild rats in spatial learning and memory tasks [ 5657 ]. Some cortical structures seem to be more affected by domestication than other areas developed at earlier phylogenetic stages.

  • Transplantation bulletin. RHF supervised all aspects of the study and participated in all aspects of its design, coordination, and drafting.

  • The reduction of motor areas in the cortex was also noted in other domesticated mammals [ 50 ]. Publication types Research Support, Non-U.

Front Zool. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Relative volumes of phylogenetically older weught, such as hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and olfactory nuclei, also displayed certain strain-related differences. Until recently, it was considered that due to domestication the brain size is reduced and animals lose a lot of their cognitive and learning abilities. The altered rationale for the choice of a standard animal in experimental psychology: Henry H.

Briefly, pups assigned to the lesion condition received hypothermia induced anesthesia followed by a small midline incision over the skull. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. Download references. Behavioral neuroscience.

For imaging studies young adult male rats at the anti obesity day 2011 mustang age 8—9 week old were sourced from the following three populations:. In this experiment, we investigated changes in brain weight as an index of global disruption of neural systems caused by focal damage to the developing cortical plate. The brain images were registered to the templates and atlases basing on images of a similar spatial resolution that were acquired in vivo [ 2123 ]. Introduction Several strains of laboratory rats are bred and supplied for use as experimental animals in multiple research fields including medicine, biology and psychology. Behavioral comparability of wild and domesticated rats.

Springhouse Corporation, Pennsylvania, p. The authors thank Dr. Hum Evol. S1 Fig. In next step the images were transformed to brain template which allowed applying labels ie. Greener J Med Sci

Witar, the amygdala has definitely increased in size 2011 mustang evolution process [ 54 ]. Brain analysis see below occurred on P30, P52, and P The callosal pattern in striate cortex is more patchy in monocularly enucleated albino than pigmented rats. The average fraction of the total neocortex expressed as percentage of individual brain volume was bigger in WWCPS Lines represent medians, dots represent individual values. S1 Table.

In addition, 6 rats underwent 6 h of moderate wistar rat brain weight brain ischemia in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the investigated brain areas to develop a cytotoxic brain edema. Gliosis following CNS injury: The anatomy of astrocytic scars and their influences on axonal elongation. The present data shows that selective breeding of laboratory rats markedly affected brain morphology, the neocortex being most significantly altered. Reserpine: The alkaloid from the Rauwolfia plant. Boice R. The albino rat: A defensible choice or a bad habit? Volume difference VD was calculated as follows:.

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