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Diet induced obesity model – High-fat diet-induced obesity in animal models

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. In fact, the biggest difficulty to find an effective model for DIO is the lack of standardization among obesity-inducing protocols.

Lucas Cox
Wednesday, June 3, 2020
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  • Propensity to regain weight following weight loss: summary of data from a meta-analysis of US weight loss studies. American Journal of Physiology.

  • Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable.

  • Tschop M, Heiman ML. Centrally, it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and increasing the arterial blood pressure, while peripherally, it modulates the release of several vasoactive factors, mainly NO, in the vascular endothelium Kimura et al.

  • With varied sources and types of fat, researches have shown the complexity of defining a model of a high fat diet that can both resemble human meals and accurately quantify the nutrient contents. Michael

  • Influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Therefore, low levels of brown adipose tissue can contribute to the perpetuation of obesity.

Publication types

Chapter 5. Wistar rats, for example, have a differential expression of genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in comparison with Sprague—Dawley rats, which justifies the higher fat depots found in this breed [ 19 ]. Lipids Health Dis.

Figure 5. In this scenario there is lower diet induced obesity model of short-chain fatty iinduced SCFA, like acetate, propionate and butyrate which leads to less protection of the intestinal epithelium, since SCFA are related to occludin and zonulin, and also leads to a drop in the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 resulting in decreased satiety and increased insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid accumulation [ 24384041 ]. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. Show results from All journals This journal. Finally, it is important that a non-obese control group is included in the experimental design.

Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. These diets tend to be high in fat, however there are sometimes other modifications made such as added sugar and there are varying types of fat used to create the diet. The higher basal production of NO is possibly associated with the increase in the plasmatic concentration of leptin in obese animals. Article PubMed Google Scholar.

MeSH terms

J Physiol. If you find something abusive or inducd does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Translating these observations to the human condition requires applying this information in a more physiologically relevant context. Metab Brain Dis. Visceral fat is the depot that surrounds the abdominal organs.

Figure 1. Indced PDF. When functional genomics obesity model applied, few commonalities between the gene expression of DIO vs control rodents and obese vs non-obese humans are found. Defense of body weight against chronic caloric restriction in obesity-prone and -resistant rats. While models are an important method of investigating the influences of obesity and drug testing, it is important to understand the limits of the model's overall ability to resemble the human obesogenic pathophysiology. Am J Physiol 3 Pt 2 :R—8. Figure 5.

Rider, O. Vascular effects of insulin. Various syndromes resulting in genetic polymorphisms lead to obesity. But the predominant part of studies using HFD to achieve DIO intend to investigate the effect of high caloric intake, as it happens in western society compared to a healthy control group.

Development of the bodyweight. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which obesty not comply with these terms. Diet induced obesity model animals are more susceptible to fat accumulation, gaining body weight and disruptions in glucose metabolism when fed an obesogenic diet [ 44 ]. Defense of body weight depends on dietary composition and palatability in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intervention time required for the development of obesity varies widely, ranging from 8 days to 27 weeks Table 2. It should be noted that the addition of sucrose can lead to more severe metabolic derangements in the DIO animals that are generated, even to the extent of developing diabetes in some cases. The PVAT of healthy animals attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction

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Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. Mosel OR rats, however, appear to sense the nutrient overload and adjust their food intake and increase their energy expenditure to reestablish energy balance. Figure 3. Over the years, there have been a number of different modifications to the design of the selection diet that are particularly relevant to note. Publish with us For authors Submit manuscript.

  • Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.

  • Afterwards, the body weight, adipocyte morphology, leptin and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue, gingiva, and serum as well as the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose were analyzed.

  • Translating these observations to the human condition requires applying this information in a more physiologically relevant context. Endothelial cells: new players in obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  • Am J Physiol 6 Pt 2 :R—8. Am J Clin Nutr 70 4 —3.

  • Despite these phenotypic differences across the cycle, OVX induced a large positive energy imbalance in both obese mocel lean rats, which resulted primarily from an increase in energy intake in both groups. In case of the CAF-fed mice, every type of food was separately weighed and multiplied with the respective amount of calories per gram.

Mediators Inflamm. Some species of mice are used in research because they have specific diet induced obesity model important for a obedity rather than for similarity to humans. This increase in adipose tissue can cause tissue hypoxia, which can impair the production and release of obesity regulatory hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin, and exacerbate inflammation [ 57 ]. The extrapancreatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and related peptides. In Wistar rats the consumption of a high-fat diet appears to lead to an increase in the number of fat cells hyperplasia in the subcutaneous adipose fat, whereas in the visceral adipose fat greater hypertrophy of the adipose tissue is observed [ 60 ].

J Diabetes Res. Changes in whole body fuel utilization RER and dietary fat oxidation in response to this caloric excess also tended to be inudced in the obese. PVAT was frozen separately. This scenario occurs since the increase in acetate stimulates the activation of the parasympathetic pathway, which increases the secretion of ghrelin stimulating both an increase in food consumption and a greater secretion of insulin [ 42 ]. Overview of Animal Models of Obesity.

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This genomic based study induced obesity in rats and subsequently analyzed RNA microarrays to characterize the rats metabolic response and resultant insulin sensitivity. Visceral fat is the depot that surrounds the abdominal organs. Keywords: animal models; diet-induced obesity; high-fat diet; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; obesity. After the exclusion of articles that were duplicated, articles were considered eligible for reading titles and abstracts. The outcome measure of obesity is usually either the gain of body weight or body fat.

  • Behavioral responses to orexin, orexin receptor gene expression, and spontaneous physical activity contribute to individual sensitivity to obesity.

  • Articles that induced obesity by other methods, such as genetic manipulation, surgery, or drugs were excluded, since our main objective was to identify key points for the induction of obesity through diet.

  • Selective breeding for diet-induced obesity and resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  • Additional studies will be required to further determine if a time point between 9 and 14 weeks is predictive of long-term adiposity. Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

  • The gut microbiota composition of the animals of each group was evaluated at the end of the study by real-time PCR.

Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade diet induced obesity 37and iNOS expression was shown in diet-induced obese mice 38 and rats Int J Obes 14 Suppl 1 —45; discussion 45—7. While models are an important method of investigating the influences of obesity and drug testing, it is important to understand the limits of the model's overall ability to resemble the human obesogenic pathophysiology. Figure 1. Interestingly, despite similar intakes and energy expenditure on the LF diet, a greater rate of lipid disappearance was observed in the DR rats compared to DIO rats, suggesting greater basal lipid oxidation in DR rats

Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. N The gut microbiota composition of the diet induced obesity model of each group was evaluated at obewity end of the study by real-time PCR. To assess some of the features of the metabolic syndrome, oral glucose tolerance tests, systolic blood pressure measurements and blood biochemical analysis were performed throughout the study. Duplicated articles were excluded and the rest were evaluated according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria Table 1. Social and environmental determinants may also induce the onset of obesity. Furthermore, adipose tissue from HFSD rats exhibited significantly larger adipocytes, displayed a significant upregulation of leptin and, surprisingly, elevated adiponectin levels, which is in contrast to chronic obesity in humans.

Introduction

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Frontiers in Nutrition. The body fat gain is quantified either indirectly through the weight gain, or directly using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Eubiosis and dysbiosis: the two sides of the microbiota. When taken together, observation of DIO rats in this paradigm diet induced obesity weight regain suggest that adaptive changes in muscle and adipose tissue indced a metabolic context for rapid, energetically efficient weight regain. At this point, animals in the middle group are removed from the study. It was shown that, in dependency of the level and type of fibre in a diet, gut morphology and microbiome varied in mice The components and nutritional values are displayed in Table 1. This correlation links these gut bacteria to an inability to digest complex polysaccharides. Mechanisms of thrombosis in obesity.

World Health Organization During this time, almost half of the lost weight had been regained Energy balance across the estrous cycle and following OVX in lean and obese rats. The definition and prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Rodent obesity models: an overview. Vecchione, C. World Health Organization Skeletal muscle composition in dietary obesity-susceptible and dietary obesity-resistant rats.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Using this approach, DIO-prone rats were observed to have significant reductions in heart, pancreas, modek hypothalamic NE turnover, potentially indicating that differences in NE metabolism may be involved in the development of DIO on high energy diets Obesity, inflammation, and exercise training: relative contribution of iNOS and eNOS in the modulation of vascular function in the mouse aorta. D; Kirkman, E.

The markers used to assess the development of obesity include body weight and fat total, subcutaneous doet visceral gain, but other parameters related to inflammation, hormone concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health are often desired. Because of the commonalities between the two, rats may prove to be helpful in the search for the cause of human obesity. J Physiol. Full size image. Clinical relevance: The rodent diet-induced obesity model may be useful for unraveling pathomechanisms underlying the association between obesity and periodontal destruction but conclusions have to be drawn with caution. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. The control group is given a diet with low percentage of total energy from fat e.

Figure 1 illustrates the significant separation of body weight between C and Ob groups observed at week 9, which remained significantly greater during the 27 weeks of the experimental protocol. Besides the commonly known endothelial dysfunction in obesity, recent studies have shown that the PVAT plays an important role in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction 2930 Received : 20 June Determinants of left ventricular mass in obesity; a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

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Classically, obesity is defined as a visceral and subcutaneous lipid accumulation and body weight gain that may impair diet induced obesity model [ 34 ]. J Med Food. Nine studies [ 151617181920212223 ] did not provide the composition of the macronutrients directly, which made it difficult to calculate the amount of calories from fat. About this article. Diets rich in salt, sugar and fat are known to have good palatability.

By adjusting for the variability attributed obesiyy variations in fat-free mass, we observed an enhancement in metabolic efficiency, meaning the suppression in resting metabolic rate was greater than what would be predicted based the decreased mass of metabolically active tissues that occurred with diet induced obesity reduction. This is consistent with our previous studies 20 Energy density in cafeteria diet induced hyperphagia in the rat. Both the inbred and outbred strains have proven extremely valuable for obesity studies of female physiology and have elucidated critical sex-specific differences of obesity and its metabolic complications. These studies support the notion that in males, exercise attenuates the drive to eat and increases expended energy above and beyond the additional energetic cost of the exercise bout, and that these effects persist throughout the entire relapse process.

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One limitation of a model that requires stratification based on weight gain is nodel differences between OP and OR phenotypes cannot be studied prior to the dietary challenge. Obesity phenotype [ 330333435 ], as well as metabolic for bmi typical of obesity—such as increased glucose modeo, [ 30 ] becomes more apparent after a longer exposure to an obesogenic diet. These metabolic adaptations that are thought to be contributing to the biological drive to regain weight did not resolve, even with long-term weight loss maintenance. Study of the effects of nesfatin-1 on gastric function in obese rats. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. In addition, we observed that the decreased TEE and enhanced metabolic efficiency observed in our previous study remained unchanged when the length of time in weight maintenance increased. The specific fatty foods used in the diets vary across studies, ranging from Crisco to lard to palm oil.

The consumption of a high-fat diet leads to modell in the composition of the intestinal microbiota [ 8 ], which is a classic parameter that usually accompanies the development of obesity [ 33 obedity, 3637 ]. Considering that a spontaneous caloric increase is difficult to achieve in rodents, even when flavored diets are offered [ 6 ], DIO must have a high caloric density [ 1630 ]. Factors involved in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and in thermogenesis: a review. This strategy can be considered a limitation of the study, since other rodent models may also be prone to diet-induced obesity; however, they are not widely used. The consumption of a high-fat diet can also reduce the brown adipose tissue, since it may inhibit the biosynthesis of fatty acids and increase oxidative stress and cell apoptosis [ 51 ]; therefore, a high-fat diet can stimulate the development of white adipose tissue [ 28910161921232526272835516164 ] and suppress the development of the brown adipose tissue [ 51 ].

Introduction

C The consumption of a high-fat diet leads to changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota [ 8 ], which is a classic parameter that usually accompanies the development of obesity [ 333637 ]. Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. The researchers found that the mice injected with propolis had less adipose tissueglucoseand cholesterol than the mice who were not administered propolis. Additionally, samples of low-income women and children were also shown to have higher rates of obesity because of stress.

Model effects of high oleic induce vs high mixed saturated fatty acid obesogenic diets upon PUFA metabolism in mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. In addition, to select the best model in each circumstance, it should be considered that each breed and sex respond differently to diet-induced obesity. The influence of the gut microbiome on obesity, metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal disease. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions. The cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are far more complicated than the sole consumption of a high fat diet.

The age [ 1 ] and the sex [ 47 ] of the animals can interfere in the development of obesity. Research Diets. Liver health, measured through hepatic triglycerides, can be impaired by the development of obesity. Additionally, body fat increase can cause muscular cell damage, since it enhances cell susceptibility to protein degradation and apoptosis [ 56 ]; therefore, DIO is able to cause the metabolic and morphological changes that characterize human obesity.

Additionally, obesity remains in both species for long periods of time after moodel has initially set in. Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Results: Body weight was significantly higher in the HFSD group after dieting as compared to control. The increased number of fat cells persists even after the diet becomes lower in fat.

For example, Apodemus chevrieri is used in studies of metabolism diet induced obesity model the induved of the day determines their metabolism instead of their diet. Laboratory Animals. After reading the complete articles, 99 were considered ineligible by some of the exclusion criteria established Table 1. The taste and texture of diets influence the amount of food consumed.

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J Physiol. Obes Rev. A study conducted in order to study the expression of inducfd ob gene in rat adipose tissue through the control of their diets. Obesity: considerations about etiology, metabolism, and the use of experimental models. Ibrahim MM. To study the effects of the fungusscientists injected it into mice while they were on an unrestricted high-fat diet. Mol Nutr Food Res.

Melatonin expression in periodontitis and obesity: An experimental in-vivo investigation. Enhanced metabolic efficiency persisted throughout this early period of relapse and contributed to the suppressed TEE. Using this approach, DIO-prone rats were observed to have significant reductions in heart, pancreas, and hypothalamic NE turnover, potentially indicating that differences in NE metabolism may be involved in the development of DIO on high energy diets Vascular effects of insulin. Hyperglycemia enhances coagulation and reduces neutrophil degranulation, whereas hyperinsulinemia inhibits fibrinolysis during human endotoxemia. The taste and texture of diets influence the amount of food consumed.

Am J Model 4 Obeesity 1 :E—9. We have, however, performed comprehensive metabolic studies of the mature lean and obese animals across the estrous cycle, and during the initial stages of weight gain following surgical OVX The resulting data found some mice the B6 mouse responded to diet-induced obesity most similarly to humans with regards to several parameters including fat content, relative organ size, and general body composition.

Sprague—Dawley rats are considered a good model for inducing obesity through diet, since they have a behavior similar to humans capacitive transducer calculator regard to excessive food consumption, which can cause weight gain and changes in lipid metabolism [ 22 ]; however, Wistar rats are more susceptible to the development of obesity through diet, since they usually consume a higher amount of high-fat diet than the Sprague—Dawley. In this sense, although high-fat diets have a high sacietogenic potential, which reduces food consumption, the consumption of a small amount is able to efficiently increase weight and body fat due to the high caloric intake [ 7 ]. Received : 11 January There high fat diet experiments that have been done in rodents realizing the difficulties in interpreting the literature composition of high fat diet into actual experiment. Search all BMC articles Search.

Research Diets inc. Eur J Nutr. Flowchart for selecting articles. N; Lottati, M; Chiu, J. Obesity and overweight. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

Facebook Twitter Linkedin print rss. Given the importance of the biological adaptations in driving the unduced regain process 2we assert that the use of this model in this paradigm may provide valuable information about specific therapeutic strategies or combinations of strategies that are designed to attenuate the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. We observed that the rate of regain increased with time in weight maintenance Figure 5 Abut the level of defended body weight and adiposity was drifting higher obese rats switched to LF diet, dotted line. Thank you for visiting nature.

Once obesity has been established and the rate of weight gain declines, there are concomitant reductions in the differences in RQ and the model obesiity imbalance between DIO and DR rats To choose an animal model for a study of diet-induced obesity, it should be considered that rats and mice respond differently to this type of diet; in addition, strain, sex and age, affect the response to the obesogenic diet, with young animals and males being more sensitive to obesity-related comorbidities. Kaliste E. Comparison between cafeteria and high-fat diets in the induction of metabolic dysfunction in mice. All the animals were weighed once a week.

Received : 11 January About this article. Thus, the reduction in this parameter is positive for the treatment of obesity, with the expression of lipogenic genes conditioned [ 21 ]. Int J Obes.

PLoS One e This translates to an estimated 1. Figure 3. Differential inhibition of fat intake in two strains of rat by the peptide enterostatin. Results Food consumption, energy intake and weight gain The energy and nutrition intake of the CAF group were calculated by analyzing the daily snack and chow consumption.

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Rats are used in DIO studies Table 2. The micronutrients, fiber and other ingredients must remain the same in order to observe how a specific macronutrient influences or not the outcome of obesity.

One such characteristic is insulin resistancewhich comes with diet-induced obesity in both rats and humans. Calculator for of the commonalities between the two, rats may prove to be helpful in the search for the cause of human obesity. The problem is that it is difficult to calculate the amount of calories that each animal consumes. In this way, the mice could eat what pleased them most, allowing hyperphagia and obesity induction [ 15 ].

N Engl J Med. For instance, the age at which mice begin the high-fat diet greatly impacts the metabolic effects. Obesity obesity model overweight. A low-grade inflammatory condition is often observed in obese animals [ 122728343556 ]. HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, adiponectin and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. To assess some of the features of the metabolic syndrome, oral glucose tolerance tests, systolic blood pressure measurements and blood biochemical analysis were performed throughout the study. Nature Immunology.

Development of the bodyweight. The amount of food intake did not change in any group over the time of experimental feeding Fig. Am J Epidemiol 11 —9. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral.

Control groups fed ad libitum with normal chow however, do not develop any metabolic diet induced obesity model 58. Endocrinology— The degree of response to the diet depends on its nutritional composition [ 11 ]. Central orexin sensitivity, physical activity, and obesity in diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats. Diabetes 55— Involvement of nitric oxide in endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation by leptin.

Journal of Chronic Diseases. Also, differences in lipid metabolism, as fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis, as well as the interaction between genes and diet, make Wistar rats more susceptible to DIO [ 19 ]. Food Funct. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral. Nevertheless, the modulation of the gut microbiota by HF diet was similar in both strains, except for Clostridium leptum that was only reduced in Wistar rats fed with HF diet. However, it is frequent to be accompanied by the deposition of lipids ectopic fat in non-adipose tissues, such as the liver [ 5 ].

Keywords: animal models; diet-induced obesity; high-fat diet; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; obesity. Bibcode : PLoSO J Endocrinol. Numerous sources of biological variation arise in rodents before translating results to humans is even considered.

DIO mice can provide insights on the influence of high fat diet on a model over time for factors such as food intake, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. The challenges of translating high-fat-fed rodents to human obesity and diabetes". The control group is given a diet with low percentage of total energy from fat e.

The object of the present study was to compare control and experimental diets used in obesity studies. In studies with A. Weight of fat mass. New Microbiol.

  • Multiple mental and physical illnesses, along with some of the medications that treat such illnesses can increase someone's risk of obesity.

  • Wistar rats, for example, have a differential expression of genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in comparison with Sprague—Dawley rats, which justifies the higher fat depots found in this breed [ 19 ]. View author publications.

  • Effect of fat intake on energy balance.

  • Table 2 Characterization of the experimental design of the evaluated studies Full size table. Main article: Social determinants of obesity.

  • Our results showed that an unsaturated high-fat diet promoted a greater feed efficiency FEelevation of body weight and body fat BFand an adiposity index, characterizing a model of obesity. At least three measurements were performed for each animal to obtain an average record.

  • High-fat diet action on adiposity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity depends on the control low-fat diet.

A study further explored the viability of the diet-induced obesity model by testing several mice for their reactivities to a high-caloric diet. Gut microbiota: a new path to treat obesity. Research Diets. Retrieved November 9,

Additional research support was provided by the Colorado Obesity Research Institute. Local inflammation and hypoxia abolish the inducef model properties of perivascular fat in obese patients. The definition and prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rats have traditionally been ranked according to their change in body weight in response to HF feeding; those with the lowest weight gain are classified as OR, whereas those with the greatest weight gain are classified as OP.

Inducible nitric oxide synthase has divergent effects on vascular and metabolic function in obesity. Lab Animal 44— However, obesity influences males and females differently since sex hormones affect body adiposity as well as the metabolic system

  • Diet-induced obesity and pancreatic islet blood flow in the rat: a preferential increase in islet blood perfusion persists after withdrawal of the diet and normalization of body weight. While we typically use Wistar rats, outbred Sprague-Dawley rats have also been used with success.

  • Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis.

  • Reprints and Permissions.

  • Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences. Agaricus bisporus supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and fatty liver development.

  • To choose an animal model for a study of diet-induced obesity, it should be considered that rats and mice respond differently to this type of diet; in addition, strain, sex and age, affect the response to the obesogenic diet, with young animals and males being more sensitive to obesity-related comorbidities. In this way, Matias et al.

At the end of the experimental protocol, the heart, ventricles and atrium, and tibia were separated, dissected, weighed and measured on a precision scale ADCalculator for Scientific and Industrial Instrumentation Ltd. Weight gain is the primary effect of diet-induced obesity, but there are a variety of additional physiological side effects. Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between dietary fat intake and obesity. However, the Ob rats presented only higher levels of glucose at 90 min than the C rats Figure 2A.

Articles in humans, in cell culture, in non-rodent animals, as well as review articles, articles that did not have obesity induction and book chapters were also excluded. With each time period, groups with the same letter designation are not significantly different. Correspondence to Huige Li or Ning Xia. Figure 2. Reilly, M. Obesity phenotype [ 330333435 ], as well as metabolic changes typical of obesity—such as increased glucose intolerance—, [ 30 ] becomes more apparent after a longer exposure to an obesogenic diet. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

The Jackson Laboratory. About this article. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Lipids in Health and Disease.

  • Since rats and mice show a similar relationship, they are considered an appropriate model for studying dietary obesity. MMD has been responsible for conception and design and for aquisition, analysis and interpretation of data.

  • L; Bergman, R.

  • Does leptin stimulate nitric oxide to oppose the effects of sympathetic activation?

  • In recent years, we have employed a standardized dietary screen of outbred rats Figure 1 to identify those rats that have a polygenic predisposition for resistance or propensity to become obese under environmental pressures that are thought to contribute to obesity in humans: consumption of a HF diet and limited physical activity 1832 — Combination of citrus polymethoxyflavones, green tea polyphenols, and Lychee extracts suppresses obesity and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet induced obese mice.

  • When functional genomics is applied, few commonalities between the gene expression of DIO vs control rodents and obese vs non-obese humans are found.

The Western pattern diet, rich in sugar, fat and ultra-processed obesigy leads to changes in intestinal permeability, which results in an increase in endotoxemia, insulin resistance, steatosis and inflammation of the adipose tissue [ 3839 ], which results in obesity development [ 363839 ]. Changes in the release of inflammatory cytokines are used to justify the symptoms found, not being a determining parameter for the induction of obesity. Obesity is affected by "environmental, biological, and psychosocial pressures", [18] therefore it is understandable that several limitations are established when translating results between the results of a diet induced obesity model in a lab and humans. This way, the differences between the consumed food of the control and obesity groups are limited to the energy content which also enhances reproducibility

Overview of Animal Models of Obesity. Article PubMed Google Scholar 8. The influence of the gut microbiome on obesity, metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal disease. Bibcode : PLoSO CiteSeerX Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin.

This approach can be applied to test weight reduction strategies for their ability diet induced obesity model overcome the metabolic pressures driving weight regain by modifying the environmental conditions in the treatment phase and examining the response during the relapse phase. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Rahmouni, K. Keywords: obesity resistance, weight regain, menopause, breast cancer, exercise, adipose, high-fat diet, sex differences.

The consumption of diets rich in fat obsity result in the development of human-like obesity, since it increases body adiposity and leptin, and stimulates the development of hypertension and glucose intolerance. The body weight gain is quantified using the difference in the raw mass of the animal or in the Lee index an index similar to the BMI in humans. In addition, to select the best model in each circumstance, it should be considered that each breed and sex respond differently to diet-induced obesity. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. High levels of leptin and insulin are produced; at the same time, the body becomes resistant to both. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences. Thus, the reduction in this parameter is positive for the treatment of obesity, with the expression of lipogenic genes conditioned [ 21 ].

With the sugar solution, the animals had free access to regular chow food, fat-rich pellets, and a bottle of tap water. DIO Series Diets. J Endocrinol. Add links.

HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, obesitg and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. Additionally, the mitochondria of model brown adipose tissue are also affect by DIO impairing glucose metabolism [ 51 ]. The researchers found that the mice injected with propolis had less adipose tissueglucoseand cholesterol than the mice who were not administered propolis. Also, the obesogenic diet can induce fat ectopic accumulation in the pancreas, which stresses greatly beta cells, disrupting insulin production [ 2327 ].

Second, obesitj allows for more precise measures of food intake, which is often an outcome in studies of this nature. For the early studies from Hill et al. This finding corroborates studies that have verified a significant reduction in SBP in obese animals Reilly and Rader, ; Carroll et al. Second, anaesthesia before organ isolation was performed with isoflurane. Leung, Y. During the 45 min stabilization period, the aortic rings were subjected to a resting tension of approximately 1 g and adjusted when necessary. Article PubMed Google Scholar.

Food Res Int. The mental, emotional and cultural factors along with insulin resistance and hyperphagia are known to increase the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in humans. Comparison between cafeteria and high-fat diets in the induction of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Body weight and fat gain, as well as determinants related to inflammation, hormonal concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health, must be evaluated together to better determination of the development of obesity.

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