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Hypogonadism gigantism definition – Gigantism and Acromegaly

Definition Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disorder of the adrenal glands. Journal of the American Medical Association.

Lucas Cox
Saturday, June 6, 2020
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  • Lavezzi, and F.

  • Clinical Endocrinology.

  • Your doctor will conduct a physical examination and ask you about your medical history and symptoms. Biermasz, M.

What is gigantism?

This helps gifantism detect any tumour growth and screening for complications that might have occurred. This can cause any of the following conditions: Adrenal insufficiency adrenal glands do not produce enough of their hormones Diabetes insipidus extreme thirst and excessive urination; in rare cases Hypogonadism body's sex glands produce little or no hormones Hypothyroidism thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. There is no precise definition of the degree of height that qualifies a person to be termed a "giant. Therefore controlling GH, hypertension, and heart disease are relevant in decreasing mortality rate.

This rare condition occurs if GH hypersecretion begins in childhood, before dwfinition of the epiphyses. Lung volumes become increased in patients with acromegaly and they may develop subclinical hypoxemia. Precocious puberty and a variety of conditions associated with excessive amounts of testosterone or estrogen in childhood will result in tallness by mid-childhood. Orskov, O. Bitemporal hemianopia may develop if suprasellar extension compresses the optic chiasm.

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The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Gonadal disorder. Colonic polyps are increased as a result of Hypogonadism gigantism definition excess. The effects of both treatments often are temporary, but permanent infertility may occur. Radiation therapy may be used at any step of treatment but is typically used as primary therapy only when surgery is not available.

Another treatment for hypogonadism is human chorionic gonadotropin hCG. It is particularly indicated in men with hypogonadism who wish to retain their fertility, as it does not suppress spermatogenesis as testosterone replacement therapy does. Gonadal disorder. Snyder PJ. Journal of Urology.

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Decreased gonadotropin secretion often occurs with GH-secreting tumors. Retrieved This condition often corrects itself within the first few years of life without treatment.

Hypogonadism is also categorized by endocrinologists hpogonadism the level of the reproductive system hypogonadism gigantism definition is defective. Iron levels can affect your sex hormones. Early treatment may prevent the disease from getting worse and help avoid complications. Clomifene at much higher doses is used to induce ovulation and has significant adverse effects in such a setting. Most children with gigantism have too much growth hormone, which makes them grow too much, too fast. Testicles produce sperm. Octreotide is also available in an oral preparation given twice daily.

  • These studies have suggested that more severe radiological changes are associated with disease duration and activity.

  • Your sex hormone level may decrease if you stop treatment.

  • Pegvisomant is given with a loading dose 40 mg hypogonadism gigantism definition under physician supervision followed by a maintenance dose of 10 mg subcutaneously once a day and titrated by 5-mg increments every 4 to 6 weeks, depending on IGF-I levels.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging MRI with contrast administration is the best imaging technique to pinpoint the pituitary source of excess GH.

  • It is often accompanied by a sort of mental retardation, delay in social development and cognitive ability in the child, a low muscle tone, and impairment in speech.

  • It has a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure.

Share on: Facebook Twitter. In Januarythe Hypogonadism gigantism definition College of Physicians issued clinical guidelines for testosterone treatment in adult ggantism with age-related low levels of testosterone. Male reproductive system The male reproductive system makes, stores and moves sperm. Low androgen e. Retrieved 26 July Categories : Endocrine gonad disorders Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins Gynaecologic disorders Male genital disorders Menstrual disorders Mammal reproductive system Intersex variations. Hypogonadism occurs when your sex glands produce little or no sex hormones.

It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Gigantism". When secretion of testosterone or estradiol remains below average throughout the teenage years, a taller hypogonasism height will be 3 minute thesis competition tips to lose weight achieved by extra growth of the arms and legs. Long-term cure rates after transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery:. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The most characteristic predisposing factors for diabetes were older age and longer duration of illness. Diabetes mellitus type 1type 2comaangiopathyketoacidosisnephropathyneuropathyretinopathy - Hypoglycemia - Hyperinsulinism - Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

International Journal of Endocrinology

Women with hypogonadism do not begin menstruating and it may refinition their height and breast development. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Clomifene at much higher doses is used to induce ovulation and has significant adverse effects in such a setting. Insulin -like growth factor 1 IGF-1 levels.

This phenomenon is caused by increased amounts of hypogonadism gigantism definition extracellular matrix, accompanied by edema. Acromegaly Hyopgonadism gigantism Dwarfism Giant of Castelnau Growth hormone Homo heidelbergensis Hypothalamic—pituitary—somatic axis Island gigantism List of humans with gigantism List of tallest people Local gigantism Marfan syndrome Megafauna Nephilim Overgrowth syndrome. Otsuki, M. However, a random blood sample showing markedly elevated GH is adequate for diagnosis of GH hyper-secretion.

Introduction to Pituitary Hypogonadism gigantism definition. Screening males who do not have symptoms for hypogonadism is not recommended as of Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. There are also rare genetic conditions that can cause gigantism without the child having an adenoma. Early diagnosis is important. Right image shows the same patient 11 years earlier. Learn what options are available for gynecomastia treatment without surgery, including lifestyle and dietary changes.

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This means that height is normal as gitantism growth plates have fused before the excess growth hormone secretion occurs. Mutations in AIP sequencing can have deleterious effects by inducing the development of pituitary adenomas which in turn can cause gigantism. Transient elevations of GH are normal, due to the pulsatile secretion of GH, and must be distinguished from pathologic hypersecretion. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone [2] in childhood, resulting in people 2. Only approximately six new cases occur each year in the United Kingdom.

The effects — and what you can do about them — depend on the cause and at what point in your life male hypogonadism occurs. Lanreotide is given in doses hypogonadism gigantism 60 to mg monthly, with the possibility of extended dosing mg every 6 to 8 weeks in patients with well-controlled disease Pasireotide is generally considered if octreotide or lanreotide is unsuccessful in returning IGF-I levels to normal. Polycystic ovary syndrome Premature ovarian failure Hyperthecosis. New York Times. Retrieved 7 January However, soft-tissue swelling occurs, and the peripheral nerves are enlarged.

Testosterone replacement therapy is a widely used treatment for hypogonadism in males. More Content. In any case, the LH and FSH levels will rise in cases of primary hypogonadism or menopause, while they will be low in women with secondary or tertiary hypogonadism. GH initially exerts insulin-like effects, increasing glucose uptake in muscle and fat, stimulating amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in liver and muscle, and inhibiting lipolysis in adipose tissue. Other side effects can include an elevation of the hematocrit to levels that require blood withdrawal phlebotomy to prevent complications from excessively thick blood. Male hypogonadism means the testicles don't produce enough of the male sex hormone testosterone.

Other conditions of overgrowth or excessive tallness in childhood

Videos Figures Images Quizzes Symptoms. Lay summary — UroToday 12 July Philadelphia, Current Medicine,

Gigantism may occur at any age, and has been observed hypogonadism gigantism definition early as the first two to three months of life. Male hypogonadism means the testicles don't produce enough of the male sex hormone testosterone. Medically reviewed by Dena Westphalen, Pharm. Peripheral neuropathies occur commonly because of compression of nerves by adjacent fibrous tissue and endoneural fibrous proliferation. These are typically given in pill form.

Sleep apnea, the phenomenon of recurrent cessation or reduction of airflow to the lungs during sleep, is a common defunition hypogonadism gigantism definition snoring and daytime sleepiness in acromegaly. Other names somewhat obsolete for this pathology are hypersomia Greek: hyper over the normal level; soma body and somatomegaly [2] Greek; soma body, object pronoun somatos of the body; megasmegalos great. Bolland, and G. GH and IGF-I have a stimulatory effect on osteoblast function, and several studies indicate a potential anabolic effect of GH, at least on the cortical bone. Orme, R. Scarpa, D. Lima, L.

Stereotactic radiation, delivering about cGy to the pituitary, is used, but GH levels may hypogonadism gigantism definition fall to normal for several years. Annales d'Endocrinologie. However, in gigantism, they are frequently large and invade nearby brain tissue. Excess GH can cause insulin resistance, as it alters the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production and stimulates its use [ 34 ]. In press.

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Sources: See template. Polycystic ovary syndrome Premature ovarian failure Hyperthecosis. In situations where these drugs are not helpful, daily shots of pegvisomant might be used as well. Effective doses range from 10 to 40 mg monthly. Views Read Edit View history.

Main articles: Hypergonadotropic hypogonadismHypogonadotropic hypogonadismand Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. PMID hypogonadism gigantism definition Insulin -like growth factor 1 IGF-1 levels. Most children with gigantism have too much growth hormone, which makes them grow too much, too fast. The male reproductive system makes, stores and moves sperm. Defective egg or sperm development results in infertility.

Photographs of the patient are important in delineating the course of the disease. The operation aims to remove or reduce the size of the tumour to lower growth hormone levels hypogonadism gigantism definition reduce the pressure on the optic nerve needed for your eyes to work and other nearby areas. Grunstein, K. Related articles. Because radiation damage is cumulative, proton beam therapy should not be used after conventional gamma-irradiation. Categories: Growth disorders Human height Growth hormones Neuroendocrinology. In contrast, the tallness associated with the more common androgen insensitivity syndrome averages only a few inches, as estradiol is not produced directly but rather through conversion from androgens by aromatase.

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Does Stress Cause Hair Loss? Retrieved 5 March In: Greenspan's Basic and Clinical Endocrinology.

Your pituitary gland makes these reproductive hormones. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved Pituitary Tumors.

Payer, I. The pathogenesis of arthropathy in acromegaly is comprised of two mechanisms: initial endocrine elevated GH and IGF-I levels promote growth of the articular cartilage and periarticular ligaments, subsequently leading to mechanical changes. Finding the optimal level of pegvisomant is important so normal body growth is not negatively affected. Another factor to consider is obesity experienced by patients with acromegaly. Arthralgia is one of the most common complaints of acromegalic patients. Garcia-Buela, S.

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Treatment to shrink or definition the tumor may include:. Clomifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM. An abnormality in the pituitary gigantis can impair the release of hormones from the pituitary gland to the testicles, affecting normal testosterone production. Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Left image shows a year-old woman who presented with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma.

Hypogonadism can involve just hormone production or just fertilitybut most commonly involves both. Pituitary Disorders. Retrieved 19 Dec Medically reviewed by Janet Brito, Ph. It may be called low serum testosterone or andropause when it happens in males.

Cabergolinea dopamine agonist, has been used alone or in combination with a somatostatin receptor ligand and works by suppressing GH secretion at the pituitary. Keep it up : the power of precision medicine to conquer low T and revitalize your life. Hypogonadism is often discovered during evaluation of delayed pubertybut ordinary delay, which eventually results in normal pubertal development, wherein reproductive function is termed constitutional delay. However, the condition can be hard for parents to detect. It is often accompanied by a sort of mental retardation, delay in social development and cognitive ability in the child, a low muscle tone, and impairment in speech.

Retrieved 7 January Pegvisomantthe GH receptor antagonist, is given as a daily subcutaneous injection and decreases IGF-I levels and symptoms but hypogonadism gigantism definition not decrease GH levels or act on the pituitary tumor. While historically, men with prostate cancer risk were warned against testosterone therapy, that has shown to be a myth. Hypogonadism occurs when your sex glands produce little or no sex hormones. Several hours later, more profound anti—insulin-like metabolic effects occur. Archived from the original PDF on In Klinefelter syndrome, two or more X chromosomes are present in addition to one Y chromosome.

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In secondary hypogonadism, the testicles are normal but don't function properly due to a problem with gigangism pituitary or hypothalamus. Was This Page Helpful? Testosterone propionate b. There may be cases when the entire limb may be enlarged. There are also rare genetic conditions that can cause gigantism without the child having an adenoma.

Videos Figures Images Quizzes Symptoms. Cannavo, B. Fougner, K. The majority of children who seem excessively tall or large to their parents usually have a combination of simple familial tallness and childhood obesity. Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Pancreas View all Glands. Vaiphei et al.

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Finally, some physicians worry that obstructive sleep apnea may worsen with testosterone therapy, and should be monitored. Journal of the American Medical Association. Test your knowledge. What are the symptoms of hypogonadism? Archived from the original PDF on Show references Ferri FF. Namespaces Article Talk.

It has a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Finding a specific genetic cause for gigantism has proven to be difficult. Our years of experience in diagnosing, treating and managing pituitary conditions, as well as the high volume of patients we see every year, make us one of the best pituitary programs in the United States. Colao, R. Figure 1 illustrates the algorithm for the diagnosis of acromegaly. An early diagnosis of the disease is mandatory, although none of these symptoms is sufficiently sensitive, especially during early stages of the disease.

Which of the following is the primary site in the body where this hormone hypogonadism gigantism definition stored and released? Finding the cause of hypogonadism is an important first step to getting appropriate treatment. Mayo Medical Laboratories. Male reproductive system Open pop-up dialog box Close. Testosterone phenylacetate b.

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A number of conditions can cause secondary hypogonadism, including:. Medically reviewed by Harshil Matta, DO. Testosterone propionate b.

  • Orme, R. This excess of growth hormone that brings about gigantism is virtually always caused by pituitary growths adenomas.

  • Lanreotide is given in doses of 60 to mg monthly, with the possibility of extended dosing mg every 6 to 8 weeks in patients with well-controlled disease Pasireotide is generally considered if octreotide or lanreotide is unsuccessful in returning IGF-I levels to normal.

  • The child will grow in height, as well as in the muscles and organs.

  • Obstruction hypogonadism gigantism definition the upper airways is a result of macroglossia, prognathism, thick lips, and hypertrophy of the laryngeal mucosa and cartilage; it can cause sleep apnea and excessive snoring and can complicate tracheal intubation during anesthesia. Katznelson et al.

You should seek the care of an experienced neurosurgeon that performs a high volume of pituitary surgeries every year. Radiation therapy to the pituitary gland can also cause figantism. Integrated Authority File Germany. Arterial hypertension is considered to be one of the most important prognostic factors for mortality [ 33 ]. Pereira, J. The size and function of sebaceous and sweat glands increase, such that patients frequently complain of excessive perspiration and offensive body odor. The presence of arrhythmias atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular arrhythmias is also more common, especially during exercise [ 26 ].

Hypogonadism is often 3 minute thesis competition tips to lose weight during evaluation of delayed puberty hypkgonadism, but ordinary delay, which eventually results in normal pubertal development, wherein reproductive function is termed constitutional delay. Retrieved 7 January These tests are usually drawn in the morning when your hormone levels are highest. The tongue is frequently enlarged and furrowed. Rodale Books.

  • Demott-Friberg, W.

  • In: Greenspan's Basic and Clinical Endocrinology.

  • Some disorders including malnutrition, malabsorption, anorexia nervosa, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, type 1 diabetes mellitus, normal pregnancy, and adolescence show discrepancies between GH and IGF-I [ 61 ]. The symptoms depend upon which hormone is involved.

  • Mayo Medical Laboratories.

  • European Journal of Endocrinology.

Gigantism and acromegaly are usually caused by a pituitary adenoma that secretes excessive amounts hypogonadism gigantism definition growth hormone GH ; rarely, they are caused detinition non-pituitary tumors that secrete growth hormone—releasing hormone GHRH. Pegvisomant is a drug that blocks the effects of growth hormones. Delayed puberty or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is also frequently present, resulting in a eunuchoid habitus ie, a body build that is tall and slender with long extremities. Retrieved Like gigantism, acromegaly causes abnormal growth, but instead of making the person grow tall, it causes other symptoms.

August Macroadenomas can cause:. Giustina, P. Suarez, S. ISSN Chandler, and A. Wildemberg, R.

Somatotroph adenomas grow slowly, and patients presenting these adenomas are usually older than 50 years. Timing of hypogonnadism in the treatment of patients with acromegaly varies among institutions. Our years of experience in diagnosing, treating and managing pituitary conditions, as well as the high volume of patients we see every year, make us one of the best pituitary programs in the United States. These associations were not caused by differences in age, gender, or BMI [ 16 ].

Medically reviewed by Janet Brito, Ph. The term hypogonadism gigantism definition usually means permanent rather than transient or reversible defects, and usually implies deficiency of hypotonadism hormones, with or without fertility defects. Pituitary Lesions. Male hypogonadism means the testicles don't produce enough of the male sex hormone testosterone. Mixed testosterone esters. Cardiac disease eg, coronary artery diseasecardiomegaly, valvular insufficiencies, sometimes cardiomyopathy occurs in perhaps one third of patients, with a doubling in the risk of death due to cardiac disease. Other treatments can target specific symptoms.

The aim is to reduce growth hormone lose weight below 2. The ectopic secretion of GH is equally outstanding. Normal GH production from the pituitary gland is pulsatile; most GH values fall in the range of 0. The metabolic effects of GH are biphasic. Furthermore, studies have shown that GH secretion is influenced by age and body mass index, so both diagnostic and surveillance GH levels should be interpreted in the context of age. Acromegaly is also caused by excess growth hormone secretion however, this happens during adulthood rather than childhood.

  • The child will grow in height, as well as in the muscles and organs. View at: Google Scholar M.

  • Gonadal disorder.

  • Most patients with acromegaly have substantially higher values.

  • It is not to be used for medical diagnosis, medical advice or treatment.

  • Dutta, A.

Rodale Books. Coarse facial features are evident, including prognathism and prominence of hypogonadism gigantism definition malar eminences and supraorbital ridges. Testosterone propionate b. Views Read Edit View history. Local gigantism It is a condition in which there is an enlargement of a certain body part. Hassan August

Deficiency of sex hormones can result in defective primary or secondary sexual development, or withdrawal effects e. Definition Lesions. Vasopressin promotes water conservation by the kidneys and plays an important role in maintaining fluid homeostasis in the body. The standard range given is based on widely varying ages and, given that testosterone levels naturally decrease as humans age, age-group specific averages should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment between doctor and patient.

Pituitary Tumor Conditions

For this reason, your doctor may check for high blood iron levels, typically seen in hemochromatosis. Like gigantism, acromegaly causes abnormal growth, but instead of making the person grow tall, it causes other symptoms. Testosterone is an important hormone. Testosterone buciclate a. Next Hematuria — Causes, Treatment, and Prevention.

Fertility and Sterility. Download as PDF Printable version. Clomifene at much hypogonadism gigantism definition doses is used to induce ovulation and has significant adverse effects in such a setting. PMC Endocrine disease. In most cases, your child should be able to return home from the hospital the day after the surgery.

Yoshihara, Y. Finding a specific genetic cause for gigantism has proven to be difficult. These often occur at a relatively young age and are thought to be caused by hypogonadiam genetic mutation. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gigantism. In rare cases, in patients with acromegaly and unremarkable pituitary MR imaging and no evidence of ectopic GH or GHRH production CT or MRI thoracic and abdominal negativea transsphenoidal pituitary exploration is a reasonable approach and may result in clinical improvement and biochemical cure in the hands of experienced surgeon [ 68 ]. Webb, F. Some authors have found an increased thickness of the intima-media layer, depending on factors such as smoking [ 28 ].

Alternative names for gigantism

While historically, men with prostate cancer risk were warned against testosterone therapy, that has shown to be a myth. BJU International. Gigantism and acromegaly are usually caused by a pituitary adenoma that secretes excessive amounts of growth hormone GH ; rarely, they are caused by non-pituitary tumors that secrete growth hormone—releasing hormone GHRH. Lungs and pancreas may be first evaluated in searching for the sites of ectopic production.

This gigantiam because hypogonadism is an abnormality, whereas menopause is a normal change in hormone levels. If not corrected in early childhood, it can lead to malfunction of the testicles and reduced production of testosterone. BJU International. These can include:. Depending on when hypogonadism develops and how much testosterone is present, a child who is genetically male may be born with:. Endocrine disease. Endocrine disease.

Download other formats More. It has been suggested that the mortality rate in acromegalic patients is correlated with the degree to which GH hypersecretion is controlled. Pituitary Disorders Read more. Jorgensen, N. Lombardi, and A.

Goiter and thyroid abnormalities are common, potentially as a result of the stimulating effects IGF-I on thyrocyte growth. It is a rare disorder resulting from increased levels of growth hormone before the fusion of the growth plate which usually occurs at some point soon after puberty. Introduction to Pituitary Disorders.

Left image shows a hypogonadism gigantism definition woman who presented with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma. Accessed Aug. In general, drug therapy is indicated if surgery is contraindicated, if surgery or radiation therapy has not been curative, or if radiation therapy is being given time to work. Sources: See template.

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Before closure of the epiphyses, the result is gigantism. Screening for hypogonadism gigantism definition, including diabetesheart disease, and gastrointestinal cancer, should be done at the time of diagnosis. Integrated Authority File Germany. Gigantism cannot be prevented. This provides us with an insight into the multifactorial etiology of obstructive sleep apnea in acromegaly [ 4445 ].

Frontal and lateral tips of a patient with acromegaly. Merck Manual Professional Version. In general, drug therapy is indicated if surgery is contraindicated, if surgery or radiation therapy has not been curative, or if radiation therapy is being given time to work. If you have menstrual irregularities or trouble conceiving, you may receive injections of the hormone human choriogonadotropin or pills containing FSH to trigger ovulation. In men, it causes impaired muscle and body hair development, gynecomastiadecreased height, erectile dysfunctionand sexual difficulties.

When GH hypersecretion begins after epiphyseal closure, the earliest clinical manifestations are hypogonadizm of the facial features and soft-tissue swelling of the hands and feet. Symptoms and Signs. Sources: See template. Most pediatric endocrinologists may see at most one or two patients with the condition during their careers. Bibcode : PLoSO The risk of cancer, particularly of the gastrointestinal tract, increases 2-fold to 3-fold. Male primary or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is often treated with testosterone replacement therapy if they are not trying to conceive.

Other treatments can target specific symptoms. Hypogonadism gigantism definition pituitary gigantiwm or other type of brain tumor located near the pituitary gland may cause testosterone or other hormone deficiencies. Testosterone buciclate a. Gonadal disorder. Pasireotidea somatostatin receptor ligand with affinity for SSTR-1, 2, 3, and 5, is also available in short- and long-acting preparations.

  • However, there was no increase in the prevalence of well-defined carotid plaques in either of the patient groups in comparison to controls [ 28 ].

  • Testosterone replacement therapy is a widely used treatment for hypogonadism in males. It may also occur in other animals, i.

  • Barkan, F. You should seek the care of an experienced neurosurgeon that performs a high volume of pituitary surgeries every year.

  • There are certain diseases that occur due to this disease.

  • Microsoft Academic 2.

It dfinition mainly synthesized in the liver, although nearly all of the tissues contribute to the circulating concentration. Mass effect of the tumor may affect the secretion of the pituitary gland hormones, resulting in hypopituitarism. Cittadini, and S. Pegvisomant is one pharmaceutical drug which has received attention for being a possible treatment route for gigantism. Ellis, J. Annales d'Endocrinologie. Bhansali, K.

View at: Google Scholar P. Therefore, other pituitary hormones and their target hormones should be evaluated. This is an definitiin access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Another factor to consider is obesity experienced by patients with acromegaly.

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