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Importance of breastfeeding and overweight: Why It Matters

In one study, feeding breast milk to babies who were born very prematurely before 30 weeks for the first 28 days led to increased brain volume as well as stronger academic achievement and motor skills at age 7.

Lucas Cox
Friday, June 12, 2020
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  • Here is what you….

  • Multiple studies on the relationship between breastfeeding and cognitive performance have found that breastfed children have higher scores on intelligence tests during childhood and adolescence than those who were not breastfed. Am J Epidemiol.

  • Breastfeeding has been identified as a protective factor for childhood obesity in many studies [ 16 — 20 ], while other studies failed to establish an association between the breastfeeding and childhood obesity [ 2122 ]. Cancel Continue.

  • Over time, the level of antibodies in your breast milk decreases as your baby's immune system makes more of its own antibodies. One large study found that women who planned to breastfeed and went on to do so had the lowest risk of PPD, while the highest risk was found in women who had planned to breastfeed but did not.

Background

Does breastfeeding protect against childhood overweight? In addition, we analyzed the most recently data published before 1 st August and and overweight data, with no lower date limit. This meta-analysis has several strengths. Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding alert icon for about 6 months, and then continuing breastfeeding while introducing complementary foods alert icon until your child is 12 months old or older. Eur J Public Health.

Related research and further reading Emerging research: Epigenetics and the microbiome Read more. It has the right amount of nutrients, is easily digested, and is readily available. Li [ 50 ]. Beyond publication bias.

The prevalences of overweight and obesity are increasing nearly worldwide. Abstract Background: Whereas a recently published meta-analysis showed that ever breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood significantly, the recent literature describing the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight or obesity in childhood remains inconclusive. Lucas A. J Nutr ; suppl : S —80S. Talk to your healthcare provider about safe treatments for PPD while breastfeeding. An examination of factors believed to be associated with infantile obesity. CI, confidence intervalOR, odds ratio.

Breastfeeding lowers the risk of SIDS

Arch Dis Child. The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding, 1 st edition, pages A large study found that any amount of breastfeeding — it doesn't need to be exclusive — provides protection against SIDS.

Interpreting epidemiologic evidence. Breast feeding and the risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases in the child. Is it normal to feel aroused when I'm breastfeeding? Download all slides. BMJ ; : —7. Therefore, a high priority has been given to research strategies to prevent the development of obesity.

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According to the WHO recommendations, infants should be exclusively and overweight for the first 6 months, and breastfeeding should be supplemented with additional foods for the first 2 years or beyond [ 15 ]. Ready for your routine medical checkup? Further research is needed to determine the long-term effect of the intervention and assess its efficacy in other settings. They suggest that targeting mothers of high-risk infants for breastfeeding promotion and support may be protective against overweight and obesity during a critical window of development. Breastfeeding may help baby ace those tests. JY drafted the first version of the manuscript. Main meta-analysis results The pooled AOR derived from all 25 studies was 0.

  • Gibson, L, et al The effects of breastfeeding on childhood BMI: a propensity score matching approach. Two investigators independently completed the literature search and selection procedures.

  • Benefits of breastfeeding.

  • Publication bias was assessed first with the funnel plot [ 3435 ], followed by formal statistical tests.

  • Otherwise, the published odds ratio and 95 percent confidence interval were used.

  • One study showed that breastfeeding for longer than 4 months had a significant reduction in the chances of a baby developing overweight and obesity.

  • Some studies suggest there may be a difference in brain development between breastfed and formula-fed babies. Researchers are learning more about how breastfeeding can help prevent obesity.

Abstract Observational studies suggest a longer duration of breastfeeding to be associated dose dependently with a decrease in breastfdeding of overweight in and overweight life. Does early diet program future outcome? Issue Section:. In animal experiments, the kind of neonatal nutrition was shown to influence the development of neuroendocrine circuits in the mediobasal hypothalamus that regulates appetite control and body weight, with long-term consequences for risk of obesity for review, refer to reference Breastfeeding is natural — but that doesn't necessarily mean it's easy.

Compared to the previous reviews [ 23 — breastfeedimg ], this analysis is different in both eligibility criteria and study methodologies. Rev Assoc Med Importance of breastfeeding and overweight. However, it is important to note the smaller sample size in several categories, which may have reduced the statistical power [ 2324 ]. Finally, the different BMI cut-offs using for defining obesity in different studies may also have had an impact on the overall estimate; therefore, we performed a subgroup analysis by obesity definition to minimize this limitation. Breastfeeding and obesity: a meta-analysis. While some women seem to gain weight during breastfeeding, others seem to effortlessly lose weight.

Breastfeeding Is an Investment in Health, Not Just a Lifestyle Decision

Download all slides. Overweiht characteristics of included reports are displayed in tables 1 and 2. Close mobile search navigation Article Importance of breastfeeding and overweight. The pooled odds ratio from all five studies investigating probands up to or including 5 years of age was 0. After considering factors that influence eating behaviour and varieties in diet it makes several recommendations on feeding in the first year of life.

Therefore, a high priority has been given to research strategies to prevent the development of overwfight. For breast cancer, nursing for at least a year appears to have the most protective effect. Otherwise, the published odds ratio and 95 percent confidence interval were used. Keep me logged in. In: Zabransky S, ed. New foods may need to be presented to infants on many occasions before they are accepted, particularly as infants get older.

Infant weight gain and childhood overweight in a multicenter, cohort study. Existing advice for women to exclusively breastfeed for around the first six months, not to introduce solid foods until around six months of age, and to continue breastfeeding for at least the first year of life, should be retained. The risk of overweight was reduced by 4 percent for each month of breastfeeding. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Breastfeeding benefits for brain development may be especially important for preemies. Am J Epidemiol.

Breastfeeding Is an Investment in Health, Not Just a Lifestyle Decision

The U. During pregnancy, your uterus grows immensely, expanding from the size of a pear to filling almost the entire space of your abdomen. I importance of breastfeeding and overweight it is difficult to say that breastfeeding might prevent obesity when there are so many other factors such as genetics and the food offered in our markets depending where you live in the world. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. The authors concluded that breastfeeding is inversely associated with weight gain velocity and BMI.

  • Babies fed breast milk also have more leptin in their systems than formula-fed babies. Received Aug 22; Accepted Dec 8.

  • Age, sex, Tanner stage, television, physical activity, eating habits, weight cycling, concerns to gain weight, birth order, household income, daily energy intake, maternal body mass index, birth weight, and maternal smoking.

  • The selection process is detailed in Figure 1. Recent Blog Articles.

Because of this small sample size and ikportance the fact that the type and number of confounders differed importance of breastfeeding and overweight among these studies, we did not calculate a pooled estimate of the confounder-adjusted odds ratio. Taken together, a statistically based decision on the role of confounding could not be derived from the data here. Get the BabyCenter app. J Hum Lact ; 19 : 9 — Does infant nutrition affect adiposity and cholesterol levels in the adult? Am J Epidemiol ; : —9. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation.

Whether consider amount of TV viewing and exercise importance of breastfeeding and overweight children as adjusted confounders. Beastfeeding helps them develop muscles needed for rolling over, sitting, crawling, and eventually walking. Burke [ 42 ]. Among formula-fed infants or infants weaned from breastmilk before the age of 4 months, introduction of solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with increased odds of obesity at age 3 years. Body and Mind Resources for Teachers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Medically reviewed by Meredith Wallis, M. It found that any breastfeeding up to 9 months was linked to a reduced risk of childhood obesity at four years. BMC Public Health, With summer temperatures rising, you may worry about baby overheating.

  • Nevertheless, the interaction among multiple factors is still unclear.

  • Researchers have also found that breastfeeding protects against Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. If the Government wants to support parents, it needs to make it easier to make healthy choices.

  • Formula supplementation by 6 months was associated with higher BMIzs, whereas supplementation with solid foods was not.

  • J Perinat Med ; 32 : —

In the next phase of its plan to tackle childhood obesity, the government will examine whether importance of breastfeeding and overweight food is healthy enough and whether it contains too much sugar. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. In: Zabransky S, ed. Publication types Review. Open in new tab Download slide. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are increasing nearly worldwide.

Therefore, future studies should compare the results for exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, and exclusive formula feeding. Meanwhile, a stronger link was found between breastfeeding and obesity based on the crude OR. Am J Epidemiol. Conclusion In summary, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity. The Lancet: Increasing breastfeeding worldwide could prevent overchild deaths every year Read more.

Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children. Figure 2 shows the forest plot with odds ratio and 95 percent confidence interval and the pooled estimate for the reduction in risk of overweight for each month of breastfeeding, calculated from trend analysis by a random-effects model. Pediatrics 5. Scientists don't know exactly how breast milk reduces the risk, but they think antibodies in breast milk may give a baby's immune system a boost. Characteristics of the 17 studies, ordered alphabetically by first author, that are included in this meta-analysis, according to origin, design, data source, age, study size, loss to follow-up, exposure assessment method, and type of breastfeeding. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are increasing nearly worldwide. Inverse association of overweight and breast feeding in 9 to y-old children in Germany.

Primary Sidebar

Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. Main meta-analysis results The pooled AOR derived from all 25 studies was 0. By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our Cookie Policy Continue.

  • Misgendering: What it is and why it matters.

  • In addition to containing all the vitamins and nutrients your infant needs, breast milk is packed with disease-fighting substances that protect your baby from illness.

  • Beyerlein [ 41 ].

  • Scott [ 58 ].

  • Most healthcare professionals recommend exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months or much longer.

Your baby begins reaping overwsight from the first drop of colostrum. It states that: Breastfeeding makes an important contribution to infant and maternal health. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: categorial analysis random-effects model. The authors performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of the existing studies on duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight.

Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of prolonged breastfeeding for the prevention of overweight in children. The AAP, the U. Study design. Socioeconomic gradients in body weight of German children reverse direction between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Infant Feeding Survey — UK, Stomach virusescolds and other respiratory illnesses, urinary tract infectionsear infectionsand meningitis occur less often in breastfed babies, and they're less severe when they do happen. Are we missing lupus in males?

Evidence foxhunter chase 2014 tips to lose weight cognitive bias from a randomized experiment in the US. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Of the 16 imoprtance reports that met the inclusion criteria 18 — 33one consisted of two independent studies 24so that 17 studies 16 cohort studies, one case-control study were included in this meta-analysis. What's even more remarkable: Your body makes secretory IgA that's specific to fighting pathogens you've been exposed to.

Vitamins & Minerals

Childhood obesity has also dramatically worsened and is now considered a major threat to human health [ 3 — 5 ]. Benefits for Mothers. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Minus Related Pages.

These antibodies are found in breast milk and can't be replicated in formula. Characteristics of the 17 studies, ordered alphabetically by first author, that are included in this meta-analysis, according to origin, design, data source, age, study size, loss to follow-up, exposure assessment method, and type of breastfeeding. The authors performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of the existing studies on duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight. Multiple studies on the relationship between breastfeeding and cognitive performance have found that breastfed children have higher scores on intelligence tests during childhood and adolescence than those who were not breastfed. BMJ ; : —7. Even babies who are routinely around other children and exposed to more germs in daycare, for example get sick less often if they're breastfed or given expressed breast milk. Toy safety guidelines.

View Metrics. Inform yourself. The subgroup analyses showed that the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity was particularly strong in 4 studies that applied other definitions of obesity. This research studied children in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. Open J Prev Med.

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These results are inconsistent with the findings of several studies. There is also some evidence that babies fed formula have higher insulin levels in their blood which can stimulate fat deposition. Top of Page.

Nicotine addiction explained — and how importance of breastfeeding and overweight can help. However, breastfeeding has been suggested to be a protective factor to childhood obesity in numerous studies [ 6473 ]. Nutr; Figure 3. Choosing to breastfeed or bottle-feed with formula is one of the first important decisions. A change to dose-response relationship between breastfeeding duration and childhood obesity was confirmed in this study [ 25 ]. Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight?

BMC Pediatr. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents. The calculation of BMI for child and adolescent population was the same as that for adults; however, childhood obesity age under 20 years was defined by comparing with children of the same sex and age [ 2829 ]. Can J Public Health. It's healthy for baby to have mucus in their nose, mouth, and throat. UK breastfeeding rates are low. Breastfeeding provides warmth and closeness between you and your baby.

Email and overweight Article activity alert. The AAP, the U. Since the majority of studies analyzed here used partially breastfed subjects, it might be concluded that, beyond exclusive breastfeeding, also longer partial breastfeeding up to 9 months leads to a greater decrease in risk of overweight in later life, which might be considered in future clinical recommendations. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Overfeeding and obesity in infants and children. Select Format Select format. Dubois et al.

Publications

Any definition of overweight or obesity was allowed. Publication bias was assessed by inspection of the funnel plot and by formal testing for funnel plot asymmetry using the Begg test and the Egger test. In only two of these studies 2231 was the influence of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding analyzed. Pediatrics ; : —9.

Does early diet program future outcome? Article Navigation. Minus Related Pages. These antibodies are found in breast milk and can't be replicated in formula.

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Interventions that aim to improve diet and parental responsiveness to infant cues showed most promise in terms of self-reported behavioural change. Breastfed babies also self-regulate their milk intake. Contributor Information Jing Yan, Email: nc. However, breastfeeding has been suggested to be a protective factor to childhood obesity in numerous studies [ 6473 ]. Related research and further reading Emerging research: Epigenetics and the microbiome Read more.

This meta-analysis suggests that breastfeeding protects against obesity in childhood. Beyerlein [ 41 ]. Parenthood Baby. Breastfeeding Medicine, Vol.

Vitamin D drops are usually recommended. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: early feeding is crucial target for preventing obesity in children. Unfortunately, childhood obesity is linked to ovdrweight physical and mental health conditions, including orthopedic problems, menstruation problems, sleep trouble, depression, anxiety and diabetes in childhood [ 89 ]. One in five UK infants are obese at age 14 — but children who were breastfed are less likely to be obese. Obesity is one of the most serious health problems facing both children and adults today.

Breast milk helps protect your baby from getting sick now

Rates of excess weight varied by country, with almost 40 per oc of young people in Northern Ireland overweight or obese, compared to 38 per cent in Wales, and 35 per cent in both Scotland and England. Methods Literature search The search strategy was comprised of the following steps: 1 formulation of the main topic, and inclusion and exclusion criteria; and 2 literature search, including both electronic databases, hand-search of key journals e. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Among formula-fed infants or infants weaned from breastmilk before the age of 4 months, introduction of solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with increased odds of obesity at age 3 years. These discrepancies in the findings may be related to the diverse populations with unique genetic and environmental backgrounds and different sample sizes.

Both the breast milk itself and the way your baby feeds help him or her to develop healthy eating patterns. Am J Clin Nutr. Am J Hum Biol. Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for most babies.

Using three different techniques, we show that a longer duration of breastfeeding is associated with a larger decrease in risk of overweight. Featured video. What will make a difference In the next phase of its plan to tackle childhood obesity, the government will examine whether baby food is healthy enough and whether it contains too much sugar. After exponentiation, the resulting odds ratio and 95 percent confidence interval for change in risk for each month of breastfeeding were pooled with a random-effects model. Breastfeeding as a working mom. J R Coll Gen Pract.

Publication types

These associations are dose dependent, partially diminished when breast milk is fed from a bottle, and substantially weakened by formula supplementation after the neonatal period. Prediction of obesity in children at 5 years: a cohort study. Table 3 Associations between breastfeeding duration and childhood obesity.

  • JAMA Paediatrics, doi

  • For breast cancer, nursing for at least a year appears to have the most protective effect.

  • The authors conclude that breastfeeding does have a beneficial effect on childhood overweight and obesity, with the effect strongest in children of primary school age. Whether consider amount of TV viewing and exercise of children as adjusted confounders.

  • Evidence of cognitive bias from a randomized experiment in the US. Secretory IgA is present in low quantities in newborns and high amounts in colostrumthe first milk your body produces.

  • Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. This article is more than 2 years old.

Publication bias was assessed first with the funnel plot [ 3435 ], followed by formal statistical tests. Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more. Exclusive breastfeeding delays the introduction of solid food, which may be high in energy. Hediger [ 46 ]. Pediatrics, doi:

Pediatrics 3 : ee J Am Diet Assoc. Breastfeeding and risk of overweight. Otherwise, the published odds ratio and 95 percent confidence interval were used. Photo credit: Nathan Haniger for BabyCenter.

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Related articles in PubMed Association of periodontal disease with breed size, breed, weight, and age in pure-bred client-owned dogs in the United States. Gillman et al. We have published a meta-analysis 12 that showed breastfeeding, compared with formula feeding, to be associated with a decreased risk of overweight.

At 7 years, children who were exclusively breastfed for 16 weeks had a BMI 0. Here's what…. Figure 1. BMC Public Health, Here are some…. Liese [ 51 ].

Create a free personal importance of breastfeeding and overweight to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more. J Paediatr Child Health. To top the list, breastfeeding is mostly free, barring expenses for any lactation consulting and breast pumps. If the same study sample was used in 2 or more studies, findings of the largest sample size or the longest follow-up periods were included. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.

Nutr Res. We used three different approaches to investigate by means of meta-analytical techniques whether a relation exists between the duration of breastfeeding and the risk of overweight. Benefits of breastfeeding.

Section Navigation. Breast milk antibodies breashfeeding the part of your milk that provide your baby with a powerful immunity boost, from day one. Meanwhile, a stronger link was found between breastfeeding and obesity based on the crude OR. To top the list, breastfeeding is mostly free, barring expenses for any lactation consulting and breast pumps.

According to the WHO recommendations, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 importance of breastfeeding and overweight, and imporyance should be supplemented with additional foods for the first 2 years or beyond [ 15 ]. Harder reviewed 17 studies including overbabies. Component No. The subgroup analyses of our study show that breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of obesity, and the association was independent of TV viewing and exercise level [ 24 ].

Pediatrics 5. Greenland S, Longnecker MP. We used three different approaches to investigate by means of meta-analytical techniques whether a relation exists between the duration of breastfeeding and the risk of overweight. Fortschr Med ; 97 : — Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: categorial analysis random-effects model.

Password Forgot your password? In addition to containing all the vitamins and nutrients your infant needs, breast milk is packed with disease-fighting substances that protect your baby from illness. The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding, 1 st edition, pages Papatesta EM, et al.

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Breastfeeding tips lose the risk of SIDS Breast milk helps protect your baby from getting sick now Breastfeeding helps protect your child from getting sick later Breastfeeding may lower your baby's risk of developing allergies and eczema Breastfeeding may boost your child's intelligence Breastfeeding may reduce your risk of postpartum depression Breastfeeding can lower your stress levels Breastfeeding reduces your risk of some illnesses Breastfeeding reduces your risk of obesity What's the minimum amount of time I can breastfeed my baby and still give her the health benefits? After considering factors that influence eating behaviour and varieties in diet it makes several recommendations on feeding in the first year of life. A wide variety of solid foods should be introduced in an age appropriate form from around six months with flavours and textures becoming increasingly diverse. Get the BabyCenter app. The benefits also increase over time.

It is the clinical gold standard for infant feeding and nutrition, with breast milk uniquely tailored to meet the health needs of a growing baby. Women who breastfeed seem less likely to develop postpartum depression, compared to mothers who wean early or do not breastfeed, according to a study. Int J Pediatr Obes. The following information from each article was extracted: first author, publication year, study design, study population characteristics of country, ethnicity, age, feeding patterns e. Flowchart of literature search and selection process a. There are 2 possible explanations for this result.

Whether snd amount of TV viewing and exercise of children as adjusted confounders. Soc Sci Med. Hawkins [ 45 ]. The publication dates for these studies ranged from toand involved the population of 12 countries, including 5 German studies, 5 American studies, 3 British studies, 3 Australian studies, 2 Chinese studies, 1 Japanese study, 1 Irish study, 1 Greek study, 1 Brazilian study, 1 Dutch study, 1 Czech study, and 1 Canadian study. Reuse this content. Definitions of childhood obesity: current practice.

Breastfeeding

Open in new tab. However, the data used in this new report came from the Infant Feeding Survey [8] and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children [9] carried out in and Issue Section:. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network.

However, the duration-specific estimates from one study are not completely independent from each other as they breastfweding the same referent category in each case, which could bias the result. Visual inspection of the scatterplot revealed that the relation between duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight was linear. Sign In. Liese et al. Poulton and Williams

Breastfed babies seem to be better able to regulate their food intake and thus are at lower risk for obesity. Berastfeeding brain, healthier heart? An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Breastfeeding and risk of overweight and obesity at nine-years of age. However, breastfeeding has been suggested to be a protective factor to childhood obesity in numerous studies [ 6473 ]. This may be due to the development of different gut bacteria. Reuse this content.

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Among formula-fed infants or infants weaned from breastmilk before the age of 4 months, introduction of solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with increased odds of obesity at age 3 years. Learn More. Mothers who breastfeed tend to lose pregnancy weight more quickly. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more.

They breastdeeding that targeting mothers of high-risk infants for breastfeeding promotion and support may be protective against overweight and obesity during a critical window of development. Two investigators independently completed the literature search and selection procedures. Contributor Information Jing Yan, Email: nc. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.

Association of exclusive breastfeeding duration and fibrinogen levels in childhood and adolescence. This weight be because the original data from several studies did not distinguish between exclusive and partial breastfeeding, thereby reducing the precision of our analysis [ 5758 ]. Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I 2 index? To be able to breastfeed directly from the breast for three months, you have to be able to be with your baby constantly for three months. Rates of excess weight varied by country, with almost 40 per cent of young people in Northern Ireland overweight or obese, compared to 38 per cent in Wales, and 35 per cent in both Scotland and England.

If the Government wants to support parents, it importance of breastfeeding and overweight to make breastfesding easier to make healthy choices. This disadvantage can be at least partly overcome by the use of separate categories of duration of breastfeeding. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Studies have shown that breastfeeding can reduce a child's risk of developing certain childhood cancers, such as leukemia. Researchers continue to look at the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression PPD.

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